Unit 1 Introduction
Unit 2 The Communicative Approach
Unit 3 Focus on Reading
Unit 4 Focus on Listening
Unit 5 Focus on Speaking
Appendix: Focus on Pronunciation
This is Part 1 of the course English Language Teaching Methodology. The course consists of two parts, the first of which you will study in the first semester, and the secondof which you will study in the second semester. This course is divided into eleven unitsthat cover all the important aspects of language teaching, including the teaching of thefour main language skills: Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing. The teaching ofPronunciation, Grammar, and Vocabulary, are also covered. The practical details of therole of translation in language teaching, lesson planning, classroom management andlanguage testing are also included.
The aim of the course is to broaden your knowledge of the bases on which the Communicative Approach is based and to offer you a wider variety of teaching strategies andskills, which you can experiment with and adapt to the teaching situation you are working in. The course book is however only just a beginning in this learning process and thereal learning will only take place when you start to apply the knowledge you have gainedand improve your teaching.In order to help you reflect upon and apply the methodology you gain from the course,you are required to keep a diary, which will form the basis of the seminars with your tutor. At the end of each unit there is an evaluation questionnaire. You are expected toanswer those questions in your diary and be prepared to share your answers at the semi-nars. You are also expected to record in the diary anything you try out in your lessonswith an evaluation of its success or failure. By doing this right the way throughout thecourse （Parts 1 and 2）, you will be well prepared to cope with the Practical Project Design, your final course of your 3-year study.
This is how the Grammar-Translation Method came about. The grammar of the classi-cal language had to be described and broken down into learnable chunks: verbs wereconjugated, nouns were declined, tenses were explained and exemplified. The vocabu-lary also had to be listed and learned with a great deal of attention paid to the morpholo-gy of the words, how they were made up and combined. The rules of pronunciationwere described, they were regular, and they had to be learnt only so that the texts couldbe read aloud. The general method used in the classroom was as follows: the text wouldbe the basis of the lesson, its vocabulary drawn out and learnt with the mother-tonguetranslation, the grammar points drawn out and explained in the mother tongue, somepractice was done with translating sentences containing these structures and words （firsttarget language into mother tongue, then mother tongue into target language）, then thetext would be read aloud sentence by sentence and each one would be translated. Thestudents would normally be tested by having to perform translations. Does this sound fa-miliar？How would the syllabus be organised？ Well, usually it was designed around grammaticalstructures. Each lesson would teach a grammar structure, starting with simple ones,like the verb "to be", and progressing through to more complex ones, such as verb tens-es. Tables of grammar rules and forms would be learnt and in the early stages the textswould be specially written to illustrate the particular grammar point being taught by thatlesson.