Chapter One: What Is Fantasy Writing?
Beyond the Horizon
Chapter Two: Fantasy as Timeline
The Origins of Modern Fantasy
Early Modern Fantasy
'Tree' Versus 'Leaf': Reading the Present Through the Past
Phantasm Versus Fantasia
Chapter Three: How to Read Fantasy; or, Dreams and Their Fictional Readers
Medieval Dream Vision
The World in/of the Mirror
Chapter Four: The Best and Best Known
Play and Nonsense: Lewis Carroll and Edward Lear
Cartographies and Geographies of Fantasy: Animal Farm and Gulliver's Travels
J. R. R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings
Mary Shelley, Frankenstein: Discourses of Monstrosity
The Monsters of Middle Earth
Adolescent Monsters: Harry Potter
H. G. Wells: The First Men in the Moon and The Time Machine
'Other' Desires: Homoeroticism and the Feminine
Mothers and Mirrors: Harry Potter
Chapter Five: The Utopia as an Underlying Feature of All Major Modes of Fantasy
Thomas More, Utopia
Jonathan Swift, Gulliver's Travels
Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Her/and
H. G. Wells, The First Men in the Moon and The Time Machine
Inter-Generic Texts: The Time Machine and A Connecticut Yankee at King Arthur's Court
Yann Martel, Life of Pi
George Orwell, Animal Farm
Technology Versus Magic: A Connecticut Yankee and Harry Potter
Jeanette Winterson, The PowerBook
William Gibson, Neuromancer
Chapter Six: One Key Question: Is There Life for Fantasy Beyond Genre?
Ghosts and Their Readers
Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol
Charles Dickens, 'The Signalman'
Henry James, The Turn of the Screw
Edith Wharton, 'The Eyes'
Chapter Seven: Fantasy Criticism
Interrogating the Boundaries of Fantasy: Todorov, Matin,and Tolkien
Determining Spaces: Tolkien, Bettelheim, and Zipes
Fantasy as (Dream-)Screen: Psychoanalytic Approaches
New Bodies/New Knowledge: Massey, Haraway, and Botting
Chapter Eight: A Glossary of Terms
Chapter Nine: Selected Reading List
It is only once we have established this distinction that the ending of Tolkien's own Lord of the Rings trilogy makes any sense. Towards the end of Volume III, The Return of the King, Gandalf leaves Frodo, Sam, Merry, and Pippin on the East Road close to the borders of the Shire. Merry turns to the others and observes, 'Well here we are, just the four of us that started out together... We have left all the rest behind, one after another. It seems almost like a dream that has slowly faded.' Frodo responds, 'Not to me... To me it feels more like falling asleep again.'22 To a contemporary reader, Merry's remark makes a great deal more structural sense than Frodo's. The epic journey that spans the trilogy becomes, in Merry's terms, a dream, the border between sleeping and waking seemingly locating itself on the borders of the Shire. In this sense, the journey into Middle Earth works in a structurally identical man- ner to the journey into Wonderland, and like Alice, these four trav- ellers immerse themselves fully into it and fully return again. For Frodo, the key dreamer of Tolkien's trilogy, this is clearly not the relationship he holds to dream by this stage. His journey into dream has functioned as a moment of enhanced enlightenment, resulting in him being more fully alive when 'dreaming' than when 'awake'; but also, and as with Drycthelm, for Frodo dream and death （or the threat of death） are never far apart.
The fear of death or danger is, in fact, the key characteristic of Frodo's dreaming. The first instance of sleep overtaking him occurs in Volume I, The Fellowship of the Ring, as the travellers walk through the Old Forest prior to Pippin and Merry being attacked by the wil- low tree: 'Sleepiness seemed to be creeping out of the ground and up their legs, and falling softly out of the air upon their heads and eyes. The next dream sequence is perhaps the key one of the tril- ogy and takes place inside Tom Bombadil's house. Three of the four characters have nightmares here, in part inspired by their adven- tures in the wood; but while Pippin dreams he is back inside the wil- low, 'listening to that horrible dry creaking voice laughing at him again,' and Merry dreams he is being drowned, 'water streaming down gently, and then spreading, spreading irresistibly all around the house.., rising slowly but surely' （FR, 168）.