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  • 新剑桥商务英语(BEC)系列?剑桥BEC真题集(第4辑)(中级)(附听力CD光盘2张及答案)[平装]
  • 共3个商家     26.30元~27.60
  • 作者:剑桥大学考试委员会外语考试部(作者)
  • 出版社:人民邮电出版社;第1版(2009年9月1日)
  • 出版时间:
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  • ISBN:9787115212726

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    《新剑桥商务英语(BEC)系列?剑桥BEC真题集(第4辑)(中级)》剑桥大学考试委员会外语考试部推荐BEC高级考试用书
    The Cambridge Learner Corpus (CLC)is a unique collection of over 95,000exam papers from Cambridge ESOL.It shows real mistakes students makeand highlights the parts of English which causeproblems for learners. The CLC has been developedby Cambridge University Press with University ofCambridge ESOL Examinations to help in writingmaterials for learners of English.www, cambridge,orglcorpus

    目录

    导言
    Test 1 Reading
    Writing
    Listening
    Speaking

    Test2 Reading
    Writing
    Listening
    Speaking

    Test3 Reading
    Writing
    Listening
    Speaking

    Test4 Reading
    Writing
    Listening
    Speaking
    Key lincluding tapescripts and sample answersl
    Test 1
    Test 2
    Test 3
    Test 4
    Speaking test interlocutor frames
    Sample Answer Sheets
    Thanks and acknowledgements

    文摘

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    CREATIVITY IN THE WORKPLACENowadays, many UK companies are striving to bemore creative. But according to a recent surveyof senior managers, the lack of a can-do mentalityamongst employees and an aversion to risk ishindering British business. Many think there istoo much focus on delivering results quickly,which leaves insufficient time to think creatively.Some complain that a lack of coherent vision oncreativity prevents their organisation from beingmore innovative.Yet while senior managers may regret the lackof creativity, they must take much of the blameforcreatingthesituation.Untilrecently,successive generations of management ignoredinnovative ideas from employees. Indeed, newways of thinking were often regarded as anunwanted distraction, and original thinkersreceived little support. Despite the fact thatmany organisations are now taking steps to re-orient the business culture to promote creativity,it is not surprising, given this background, that acreative environment is hard to establish.Another related issue is raised by KatrinaMurray, a partner in a management consultancy:'While many senior managers still complainabout the lack of support for creativity in theirorganisations, they also fail to appreciate thecontribution that they themselves can make. Insome companies, there is a perception that onlymanagers at board level can influence thecompany culture.' Murray feels that suchorganisations are unlikely to change. For her,'creativeorganisationsaremadeupofindividuals who believe they can dictate theirown future. Companies need to be able to spotthese individuals and gently encourage them tolead the way.'It is also necessary for senior managers to re-examine their role. According to Alex Sadowski,an American professor of management science,'promoting creativity means re-evaluating mostof what we know about management. It meansorganisations must be prepared to invest in ideaswithout being sure of the return on thatinvestment.' Katrina Murray agrees with thisview. 'Businesses are expert at the measuredapproach, which involves analysis and riskavoidance. But there is another approach, whichinvolves intuition and not always looking at thebottom line. What is hard is establishing aworking environment in which both theseapproaches can function simultaneously.'Nevertheless,therearesomepleasingindicators of progress in this area. Many of thesenior managers interviewed in the survey saytheir organisations have adopted a number ofstrategies to encourage individuals to channeltheir creativity. Among these are giving open andhonestfeedback,allowingemployeesthefreedom to measure their performance againstmore flexible goals, and higher toleration levelsof failure. Senior managers also recognise thatthe way an organisation is led and managed iscritical to building a creative environment andthat they themselves have an important role toplay.