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  • 经济学基础(双语教学通用版)[平装]
  • 共2个商家     42.50元~44.70
  • 作者:布拉德利?希勒(BradleyR.Schiller)(作者),王福重(译者)
  • 出版社:人民邮电出版社;第1版(2012年8月6日)
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  • ISBN:9787115283306

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    《经济学基础(双语教学通用版)》是希勒教授的得力之作,被誉为“学生们真正在读的一本经济学书”,是一本公认的将“清晰与简洁”、“现实性与可读性”完美结合的教科书典范。

    媒体推荐

    1.希勒教授特别擅长将复杂的经济学原理深入浅出地阐述清楚,即使是初学者都能轻易掌握。
    2.很少能遇到写得如此棒的著作!作者将每个知识点都讲述得特别清晰,语言生动、幽默、易于理解。我希望能看到更多像希勒的《经济学基础》这样棒的书。我评它为A。

    作者简介

    作者:(美国)布拉德利?希勒(Bradley R. Schiller) 译者:王福重

    布拉德利?希勒,教授,拥有40多年的经济学教学经验,曾在美洲大学、加州大学(伯克利分校和圣克鲁斯分校)、马里兰大学和内华达大学(里诺分校)任教,并在200多所大学发表过演讲,从加利福尼亚的弗雷斯诺到土耳其的伊斯坦布尔。他的独到之处在于能把经济学基本理论与社会经济现状、经济环境、公共政治决策相联系。这一特点在本书中也得到充分体现。
    希勒博士对政策的关注,源于他作为政府顾问的广泛经验。他还是一些最重要的联邦政府机构、国会委员会以及政治候选人的顾问。另外,他还为一些政府项目作评估,并参与设计许多项目。他撰写的关于收入不公平、贫困、歧视、培训、税收改革、养老、福利、社会保障以及工资支付形式等文章经常出现在专业及流行刊物上,他还经常做客电台、电视台,以及为报纸等媒体发表经济政策评论。
    希勒教授于1965年以优异成绩取得加州大学伯克利分校的学士学位,并于1969年获得了哈佛大学的博士学位。闲暇时间,他一般喜欢打打网球,或者滑雪。
    王福重,知名学者,经济学家,经济学博士,北京大学博士后。曾任北航国际贸易系主任。主要研究领域为经济学基础理论、国际经济学和公共财政。发表学术论文数十篇,专译著十余部。书斋笔耕之余,特别关注经济现象,担任《上海证券报》、《国企》等多家媒体的专栏主笔,香港凤凰卫视特约评论嘉宾,其评论风格清新,引起广泛关注。他多次在凤凰卫视《一虎一席谈》做为嘉宾发表时事论点,其分析风格理性清晰,深受观众好评。同时作为《财经郎眼》最给力嘉宾之一,和郎咸平搭配,相得益彰。

    目录

    第一编 基 础
    第1章 经济学面临的挑战 2
    第2章 供给与需求 30

    第二编 微观经济学
    第3章 消费者需求 60
    第4章 供给决策 80
    第5章 竞争 100
    第6章 垄断 124
    第7章 劳动力市场 146
    第8章 政府干预 166

    第三编 宏观经济学
    第9章 商业周期 188
    第10章 总供给和总需求 212
    第11章 财政政策 234
    第12章 货币与银行 254
    第13章 货币政策 272
    第14章 经济增长 292
    第15章 理论和现实 312

    详细目录
    第一编 基础
    第1章 经济学面临的挑战 2
    稀缺性的核心问题 6
    三个基本的经济问题 6
    生产什么 6
    如何生产 11
    为谁生产 12
    选择机制 12
    政治过程 13
    市场机制 13
    中央计划 14
    混合经济 14
    非合意的选择 14
    市场失灵 14
    政府失灵 16
    经济学到底为何物 18
    宏观与微观 18
    理论与现实 19
    政治学与经济学 20
    适度的目标 21
    政策透视:没有免费的堤坝 21
    附录 24

    第2章 供给与需求 30
    市场参与者 31
    目标 31
    约束 31
    专业化与交换 32
    市场中的相互作用 32
    两个市场 32
    货币与交换 34
    供给和需求 34
    需求 34
    个人需求 34
    需求的决定因素 37
    假设其他条件不变 38
    需求的移动 38
    沿着曲线的移动与曲线的移动 40
    市场需求 40
    市场需求曲线 41
    需求曲线的应用 42
    供给 42
    供给的决定因素 43
    市场供给曲线 43
    供给曲线的移动 44
    均衡 45
    市场出清 45
    盈余和短缺 47
    均衡的变化 49
    非均衡价格 51
    价格上限 51
    价格下限 52
    自由放任 53
    政策透视:夏威夷的便宜汽油 55

    第二编 微观经济学
    第3章 消费者需求 60
    消费模式 61
    需求的决定因素 62
    社会精神病学的解释 62
    经济学的解释 64
    需求曲线 64
    效用原理 64
    价格与数量 66
    价格弹性 68
    需求富有弹性和缺乏弹性 68
    价格弹性和总收益 70
    价格弹性的决定因素 72
    消费者行为的其他变化 73
    收入变化 74
    政策透视:买者注意——广告的角色 75

    第4章 供给决策 80
    产能约束:生产函数 81
    效 率 83
    生产能力 83
    边际物质产品 83
    收益递减规律 84
    短期和长期 86
    生产成本 86
    总成本 86
    哪个成本重要 88
    平均成本 88
    边际成本 90
    供给水平 91
    短期生产决策 91
    长期投资决策 92
    经济成本和会计成本 93
    经济成本 94
    经济利润 94
    政策透视:投资劳动力还是投资资本 95

    第5章 竞争 100
    市场结构 101
    完全竞争 103
    没有市场权力 103
    价格接受者 104
    市场需求与企业需求 105
    企业生产决策 106
    产出和收益 106
    收益与利润 106
    利润最大化 107
    价格 107
    边际成本 107
    利润最大化产出率 108
    总利润 110
    供给行为 112
    单个厂商供给 112
    市场供给 113
    行业进入与退出 114
    进入 114
    零经济利润趋势 115
    退出 116
    均衡 116
    低进入壁垒 117
    市场特征 118
    政策透视:竞争的力量 119

    第6章 垄断 124
    垄断结构 125
    垄断者=整个行业 126
    价格与边际收益 126
    垄断者行为 128
    利润最大化 128
    生产决策 129
    垄断价格 129
    垄断利润 130
    进入壁垒 130
    进入威胁 131
    专利保护:宝丽莱与柯达之争 131
    其他进入壁垒 132
    比较结果 134
    竞争与垄断 134
    近乎垄断 135
    生产什么 136
    为谁生产 136
    如何生产 137
    垄断亦有益 137
    研究和开发 137
    对企业家的激励 138
    规模经济 138
    自然垄断 139
    可竞争市场 139
    市场结构与市场行为 139
    政策透视:航空服务垄断 140

    第7章 劳动力市场 146
    劳动的供给 147
    收入与闲暇 148
    市场供给 149
    劳动需求 150
    派生需求 150
    边际物质产品 151
    边际收益产品 152
    收益递减规律 153
    雇用决策 155
    厂商的劳动力需求 155
    市场均衡 156
    均衡工资 157
    均衡就业 158
    改变市场结果 158
    生产率的变化 158
    价格的变化 159
    法定最低工资 159
    工 会 160
    政策透视:首席执行官的薪金封顶 162

    第8章 政府干预 166
    市场失灵 167
    市场失灵的本质 168
    市场失灵的来源 168
    公共物品 168
    共同消费 169
    搭便车者的两难困境 169
    外部性 171
    消费决策 172
    生产决策 174
    社会成本与私人成本 176
    政策选择 177
    市场权力 180
    有限的供给 180
    反托拉斯政策 181
    不公平 182
    宏观不稳定性 183
    政策透视:信任政府吗 184

    第三编 宏观经济学
    第9章 商业周期 188
    评估宏观表现 190
    GDP增长 191
    商业周期 191
    实际GDP 191
    不规则增长 192
    失业 195
    劳动力 195
    失业率 196
    充分就业目标 196
    通货膨胀 199
    相对价格与平均价格 200
    再分配 201
    不确定性 205
    衡量通货膨胀 206
    价格稳定目标 207

    第10章 总供给和总需求 212
    宏观视角 213
    宏观结果 213
    宏观决定因素 214
    稳定还是不稳定 214
    古典理论 214
    凯恩斯革命 215
    总供求模型 217
    总需求 217
    总供给 218
    宏观均衡 219
    宏观失灵 220
    非合意的结果 221
    不稳定的结果 222
    移动因素 223
    短期不稳定理论的比较 225
    需求方面的理论 225
    供给方面的理论 227
    折衷的理论 227
    政策抉择 228
    财政政策 228
    货币政策 228
    供给学派政策 228
    政策透视:变化着的政策工具 229

    第11章 财政政策 234
    总需求的构成要素 235
    消费 236
    投资 237
    政府支出 237
    净出口 238
    均衡 238
    财政政策的本质 239
    财政刺激 240
    更多的政府支出 240
    减税 245
    对通货膨胀的担忧 246
    财政紧缩 247
    缩减预算 248
    增税 248
    财政方针 249
    政策透视:不平衡的预算 249

    第12章 货币与银行 254
    货币的应用 255
    货币的种类 256
    货币供给 256
    现金与货币 256
    交易账户 257
    基础货币供给 257
    准货币 258
    总需求 260
    货币的创造 260
    派生存款 260
    垄断银行 261
    法定准备金 263
    超额准备金 263
    多家银行并存的世界 264
    货币乘数 264
    派生存款的局限 265
    将超额准备金作为贷款资本 265
    银行的宏观角色 266
    融资总需求 266
    货币创造的局限 267
    政策透视:电子货币 268

    第13章 货币政策 272
    联邦储备系统 274
    联邦储备银行 274
    理事会 274
    美联储主席 275
    货币工具 275
    法定准备金 275
    贴现率 277
    公开市场操作 279
    强有力的杠杆 281
    移动总需求 282
    扩张性政策 282
    紧缩性政策 282
    利率目标 283
    价格与产出效应 284
    总需求 284
    总供给 284
    政策透视:固定规则还是相机抉择 286

    第14章 经济增长 292
    增长的性质 293
    生产能力利用上的短期变化 293
    生产能力的长期变化 293
    名义GDP与实际GDP 294
    增长指数 295
    GDP增长率 295
    人均GDP:生活水平的衡量标准 296
    单个工人的GDP:生产率的衡量标准 298
    生产率提高的源泉 300
    劳动力素质 300
    资本投资 300
    管理 300
    研究和开发 301
    政策杠杆 301
    教育和培训 301
    移民政策 301
    投资鼓励政策 302
    储蓄鼓励政策 303
    政府财政 304
    解除政府管制 304
    经济自由 305
    政策透视:我们需要更多的经济增长吗 306

    第15章 理论和现实 312
    政策工具 313
    财政政策 313
    货币政策 316
    供给学派的政策 318
    理想化的应用 319
    情形1:衰退 319
    情形2:通货膨胀 320
    情形3:滞胀 320
    微调 321
    经济记录 322
    为什么办法不总是起作用 323
    目标冲突 324
    测度问题 324
    设计问题 326
    实施问题 327
    政策透视:固定还是随机 329

    序言

    It’s hard to package all the excitement of economic events into a one-semester course, much less an abbreviated intro text. But economics is, after all, the science of choice. Instructors who teach a one-term survey of economics know how hard the content choices can be. There are way too many topics and way too little time.
    FOCUS ON CORE CONCEPTS
    Few textbooks confront this scarcity problem directly. Some one-semester books are nearly as long as full-blown principles texts. The shorter ones tend to condense topics and omit the additional explanations, illustrations, and applications that are especially important in survey courses. Students and teachers alike get frustrated trying to pick out the essentials from abridged principles texts.
    Essentials of Economics lives up to its name by making the difficult choices.
    The standard table of contents has been pruned to the core. The surviving topics are the very essence of economic concepts. In microeconomics, for example, the focus is on the polar models of perfect competition and monopoly.
    These models are represented as the endpoints of a spectrum of market structures (see figure on p. 101). Intermediate market structures—oligopoly, monopolistic competition, and the like—are noted but not analyzed. The goal here is simply to convey the sense that market structure is an important determinant of market outcomes. The contrast between the extremes of monopoly and perfect competition is sufficient to convey this essential message. The omission of other market structures from the outline also leaves more space for explaining and illustrating how market structure affects market behavior.
    The same commitment to essentials is evident in the section on macroeconomics.
    Rather than attempt to cover all the salient macro models, the focus here is on a straightforward presentation of the aggregate supply–demand framework. The classical, Keynesian, and monetarist perspectives on AD and AS are discussed within that common, consistent framework. There is no discussion of neo-Keynesianism, rational expectations, public choice, or Marxist models. The level of abstraction required for such models is simply not necessary or appropriate in an introductory survey course. Texts that include such models tend to raise more questions than survey instructors can ever hope to answer. In Essentials, students are exposed only to the ideas needed for a basic understanding of how macroeconomies function.
    CENTRAL THEME
    The central goal of this text is to convey a sense of how economic systems affect economic outcomes. When we look back on the twentieth century, we see how some economies flourished, while others languished. Even the “winners” had recurrent episodes of slow, even negative growth. The central analytical issue is how various economic systems influenced those diverse growth records.
    Was the relatively superior track record of the United States a historical fluke or a by-product of its commitment to market capitalism? Were the long economic expansions of the 1980s and 1990s the result of enlightened macro policy, more efficient markets, or just good luck? What role did policy, markets, and (bad) luck play in the economic slowdown of 2001? What forces deserve credit for the economic recovery that followed?
    In the 2008 presidential campaign, economic issues were almost always at the forefront (as Yale economist Ray Fair has been telling us for years). Democratic candidates held President Bush responsible for the housing crisis, high gasoline prices, the budget deficit, the weak dollar, and the slowing economy.
    Republican candidates responded that the Bush tax cuts had accelerated economic growth, created millions of new jobs, and helped shrink the deficit.
    How are students—much less voters!—supposed to sort out these conflicting claims? Essentials at least offers an analytical foundation for assessing both economic events and political platforms. Students get an initial bird’s-eye view of the macroeconomy (see p. 213) that relates macro determinants to macro outcomes. Then they get enough tools to identify cause-and-effect relationships and to sort out competing political claims.
    A recurrent theme in Essentials is the notion that economic institutions and policies matter. Economic prosperity isn’t a random occurrence. The right institutions and policies can foster or impede economic progress. The challenge is to know when and how to intervene.
    This central theme is the focus of Chapter 1. Our economic accomplishments and insatiable materialism set the stage for a discussion of production possibilities. The role of economic systems and choices is illustrated with the starkly different “guns versus butter” decisions in North and South Korea, Russia, and the United States. The potential for both market failure (or success) and government failure (or success) is highlighted. After reading Chapter 1, students should sense that “the economy” is important to their lives and that our collective choices on how the economy is structured are important.

    文摘

    The twentieth century was very good to the United States of America. At the beginning of that century, life was hard and short. Life expectancy was only 47 years for whites and a shockingly low 33 years for blacks and other minorities. Those people who survived infancy faced substantial risk of early death from tuberculosis, influenza, pneumonia, or gastritis. Measles, syphilis, whooping cough, malaria, typhoid, and smallpox were all lifethreatening diseases at the turn of the last century.
    Work was a lot harder back then, too. In 1900, one-third of all U.S. families lived on farms, where the workday began before sunrise and lasted all day.
    Those who lived in the cities typically worked 60 hours a week for wages of only 22 cents an hour. Hours were long, jobs were physically demanding, and workplaces were often dirty and unsafe.
    People didn’t have much to show for all that work. By today’s standards nearly everyone was poor back then. The average income per person was less than $4,000 per year (in today’s dollars). Very few people had telephones and even fewer had cars. There were no television sets, no home freezers, no microwaves, no dishwashers or central air-conditioning, and no computers. Even indoor plumbing was a luxury. Only a small elite went to college; an eighthgrade education was the norm.
    All of this, of course, sounds like ancient history. Today, most of us take new cars, central air and heat, remote-control TVs, flush toilets, cell phones, college attendance, and even long weekends for granted. We seldom imagine what life would be like without the abundance of goods and services we encounter daily.
    Nor do we often ponder how hard work might be had factories, offices, and homes not been transformed by technologyWe ought to ponder, however, how we got so affluent. Was it our high moral standards that made us rich? Was it our religious convictions? Did politics have anything to do with it? Did extending suffrage to women, ending prohibition, or repealing the military draft raise our living standards? Did the many wars fought in the twentieth century enhance our material well-being? Was the tremendous expansion of the public sector the catalyst for growth? Were we just lucky?
    Some people say America has prospered because our nation was blessed with an abundance of natural resources. But other countries are larger. Many others have more oil, more arable land, more gold, more people, and more math majors. Yet few nations have prospered as much as the United States.
    Indeed, many countries today are no better off than the United States was a century ago.
    Students of history can’t ignore the role that economic systems might have played in these developments. Way back in 1776 the English economist Adam Smith asserted that a free market economy would best promote economic growth and raise living standards. As he saw it, the pursuit of profits would induce capitalists to improve products, reduce prices, and advance technology.
    Market capitalism, he reasoned, would foster prosperity.
    Even in the United States the quest for greater prosperity continues. As rich as we are, we always want more. Our materialistic desires, its seems, continue to outpace our evident prosperity. We’ve got to have the newest iPhone, a larger TV, a bigger home, and a more exotic vacation. Even multimillionaires say they need much more money to live comfortably (see the accompanying Headline).
    How can any economy keep pace with these ever-rising expectations? Will the economy keep churning out more goods and services every year like some perpetual-motion machine? Won’t we eventually run out of the resources needed to produce so much output?