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  • 引力[平装]
  • 共3个商家     67.60元~78.30
  • 作者:哈蒂(作者)
  • 出版社:世界图书出版公司;第1版(2008年9月1日)
  • 出版时间:
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  • 包装:
  • ISBN:9787506291781

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    《引力》由世界图书出版公司出版。

    作者简介

    作者:(美)哈蒂

    目录

    Preface
    PART I SPACE AND TIME IN NEWTONIAN PHYSICS AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY
    1 Gravitational Physics
    2 Geometry as Physics
    2.1 Gravity Is Geometry
    2.2 Experiments in Geometry
    2.3 Different Geometries
    2.4 Specifying Geometry
    2.5 Coordinates and Line Element
    2.6 Coordinates and Invariance

    3 Space, Time, and Gravity in Newtonian Physics
    3.1 Inertial Frames
    3.2 The Principle of Relativity
    3.3 Newtonian Gravity
    3.4 Gravitational and Inertial Mass
    3.5 Variational Principle for Newtonian Mechanics

    4 Principles of Special Relativity
    4.1 The Addition of Velocities and the Michelson-Morley Experiment
    4.2 Einstein's Resolution and Its Consequences
    4.3 Spacetime
    4.4 Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox
    4.5 Lorentz Boosts
    4.6 Units

    5 Special Relativistic Mechanics
    5.1 Four-Vectors
    5.2 Special Relativistic Kinematics
    5.3 Special Relativistic Dynamics
    5.4 Variational Principle for Free Particle Motion
    5.5 Light Rays
    5.6 Observers and Observations

    PART Ⅱ THE CURVED SPACETIMES OF GENERAL RELATIVITY
    6 Gravity as Geometry
    6.1 Testing the Equality of Gravitational and Inertial Mass
    6.2 The Equivalence Principle
    6.3 Clocks in a Gravitational Field
    6.4 The Global Positioning System
    6.5 Spacetime Is Curved
    6.6 Newtonian Gravity in Spacetime Terms

    7 The Description of Curved Spacetime
    7.1 Coordinates
    7.2 Metric
    7.3 The Summation Convention
    7.4 Local Inertial Frames
    7.5 Light Cones and World Lines
    7.6 Length, Area, Volume, and Four-Volume for Diagon Metrics
    7.7 Embedding Diagrams and Wormholes
    7.8 Vectors in Curved Spacetime
    7.9 Three-Dimensional Surfaces in Four-Dimensional Spacetime

    8 Geodesics
    8.1 The Geodesic Equation
    8.2 Solving the Geodesic Equation——-Symmetries and Conservation Laws
    8.3 Null Geodesics
    8.4 Local Inertial Frames and Freely Falling Frames

    9 The Geometry Outside a Spherical Star
    9.1 Schwarzschild Geometry
    9.2 The Gravitational Redshift
    9.3 Particle Orbits——Precession of the Perihelion
    9.4 Light Ray Orbits——The Deflection and Time Delay of Light

    10 Solar System Tests of General Relativity
    10.1 Gravitational Redshift
    10.2 PPN Parameters
    10.3 Measurements of the PPN Parametery
    10.4 Measurement of the PPN Parameter B-Precession of Mercury's Perihelion

    11 Relativistic Gravity in Action
    11.1 Gravitational Lensing
    11.2 Accretion Disks Around Compact Objects
    11.3 Binary Pulsars

    12 Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes
    12.1 The Schwarzschild Black Hole
    12.2 Collapse to a Black Hole
    12.3 Kruskal-Szekeres Coordinates
    12.4 Nonspherical Gravitational Collapse

    13 Astrophysical Black Holes
    13.1 Black Holes in X-Ray Binaries
    13.2 Black Holes in Galaxy Centers
    13.3 Quantum Evaporation of Black Holes——Hawking Radiation

    14 A Little Rotation
    14.1 Rotational Dragging of Inertial Frames
    14.2 Gyroscopes in Curved Spacetime
    14.3 Geodetic Precession
    14.4 Spacetime Outside a Slowly Rotating Spherical Body
    14.5 Gyroscopes in the Spacetime of a Slowly Rotating Body
    14.6 Gyros and Freely Falling Frames

    15 Rotating Black Holes
    15.1 Cosmic Censorship
    15.2 The Kerr Geometry
    15.3 The Horizon of a Rotating Black Hole
    15.4 Orbits in the Equatorial Plane
    15.5 The Ergosphere

    16 Gravitational Waves
    16.1 A Linearized Gravitational Wave
    16.2 Detecting Gravitational Waves
    16.3 Gravitational Wave Polarization
    16.4 Gravitational Wave Interferometers
    16.5 The Energy in Gravitational Waves

    17 The Universe Observed
    17.1 The Composition of the Universe
    17.2 The Expanding Universe
    17.3 Mapping the Universe

    18 Cosmological Models
    18.1 Homogeneous, Isotropic Spacetimes
    18.2 The Cosmological Redshift
    18.3 Matter, Radiation, and Vacuum
    18.4 Evolution of the Flat FRW Models
    18.5 The Big Bang and Age and Size of the Universe
    18.6 Spatially Curved Robertson-Walker Metrics
    18.7 Dynamics of the Universe

    19 Which Universe and Why?
    19.1 Surveying the Universe
    19.2 Explaining the Universe

    PART III THE EINSTEIN EQUATION
    20 A Little More Math
    20.1 Vectors
    20.2 Dual Vectors
    20.3 Tensors
    20.4 The Covariant Derivative
    20.5 Freely Falling Frames Again

    21 Curvature and the Einstein Equation
    21.1 Tidal Gravitational Forces
    21.2 Equation of Geodesic Deviation
    21.3 Riemann Curvature
    21.4 The Einstein Equation in Vacuum
    21.5 Linearized Gravity

    22 The Source of Curvature
    22.1 Densities
    22.2 Conservation
    22.2 Conservation of Energy-Momentum
    22.3 The Einstein Equation
    22.4 The Newtonian Limit

    23 Gravitational Wave Emission
    23.1 The Linearized Einstein Equation with Sources
    23.2 Solving the Wave Equation with a Source
    23.3 The General Solution of Linearized Gravity
    23.4 Production of Weak Gravitational Waves
    23.5 Gravitational Radiation from Binary Stars
    23.6 The Quadrupole Formula for the Energy Loss in Gravitational Waves
    23.7 Effects of Gravitational Radiation Detected in a Binary Pulsar
    23.8 Strong Source Expectations

    24 Relativistic Stars
    24.1 The Power of the Pauli Principle
    24.2 Relativistic Hydrostatic Equilibrium
    24.3 Stellar Models
    24.4 Matter in Its Ground State
    24.5 Stability
    24.6 Bounds on the Maximum Mass of Neutron Stars

    APPENDIXES
    A Units
    A.1 Units in General
    A.2 Units Employed in this Book
    B Curvature Quantities
    C Curvature and the Einstein Equation
    D Pedagogical Strategy
    D.1 Pedagogical Principles
    D.2 Organization
    D.3 Constructing Courses
    Bibliography
    Index

    序言

    ~Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation——general relativity——will shortly be acentury old. At its core is one of the most beautiful and revolutionary conceptionsof modem science——the idea that gravity is the geometry of four-dimensionalcurved spacetime. Together with quantum theory, general relativity is one of thetwo most profound developments of twentieth-century physics. General relativity has been accurately tested in the solar system. It underliesour understanding of the universe on the largest distance scales, and is centralto the explanation of such frontier astrophysical phenomena as gravitational col-lapse, black holes, X-ray sources, neutron stars, active galactic nuclei, gravita-tional waves, and the big bang. General relativity is the intellectual origin of manyideas in contemporary elementary particle physics and is a necessary prerequisiteto understanding theories of the unification of all forces such as string theory. An introduction to this subject, so basic, so well established, so central to sev-eral branches of physics, and so interesting to the lay public is naturally a partof the education of every undergraduate physics major. Yet teaching general rel-ativity at an undergraduate level confronts a basic problem. The logical order ofteaching this subject (as for most others) is to assemble the necessary mathemati-cal tools, motivate the basic defining equations, solve the equations, and apply thesolutions to physically interesting circumstances. Developing the tools of differ-ential geometry, introducing the Einstein equation, and solving it is an elegant andsatisfying story. But it can also be a long one, too long in fact to cover both thatand introduce the many con~~temporary applications in the time that is typicallyavailable for an introductory undergraduate course. Gravity introduces general relativity in a different order. The principles onwhich it is based are discussed at greater length in Appendix D, but essentiallythe strategy is the following: The simplest physically relevant solutions of theEinstein equation are presented first, without derivation, as spacetimes whose ob-servational consequences are to be explored by the study of the motion of testparticles and light rays in them. This brings the student to the physical phenom-ena as quickly as possible. It is the part of the subject most directly connected toclassical mechanics, and requires the minimum of new mathematical ideas. TheEinstein equation is introduced later and solved to show how these geometriesoriginate. A course for junior or senior level physics students based on these principlesand the first two parts of this book has been part of the undergraduate curriculumat the University of California, Santa Barbara for over twenty-five years. It works.~

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