INTRODUCTION AND PLAN OF THE WORK
BOOK I. OF THE CAUSES OF IMPROVEMENT IN THE PRODUCTIVE POWERS OF LABOUR,AND OF THE ORDER ACCORDING TO WHICH ITS PRODUCE IS NATURALLY DISTRIBUTED AM'ONG THE DIFFERENT RANKS OF THE PEOPLE
CHAPTER I. OF THE DIVISION OF IABOUR
CHAPTER II. OF THE PRINCIPLE WHICH GIVES OCCASION TO THE DIVISION OF LABOUR
CHAPTER III, THAT THE DIVISION OF IABOUR IS
LIMITED BY THE EXTENT OF THE MARKET
CHAPTER IV. OF THE ORIGIN AND USE OF MONEY
CHAPTER V. OF THE REAL AND NOMINAL PRICE OF COMMODITIES, OR OF THEIR PRICE IN LABOUR,AND THEIR PRICE IN MONEY
CHAPTER VI. OF THE COMPONENT PART OF THE PRICE OF COMMODITIES
CHAPTER VII. OF THE NATURAL AND MARKET PRICE OF COMMODITIES
CHAPTER VIII. OF THE WAGES OF LABOUR
CHAPTER IX. OF THE PROFITS OF STOCK
CHAPTER X. OF WAGES AND PROFIT IN THE
DIFFERENT EMPLOYMENTS OF LABOUR AND STOCK
CHAPTER XI. OF THE RENT OF LAND
BOOK II. OF THE NATURE, ACCUMULATION,AND EMPLOYMENT OF STOCK
CHAPTER I. OF THE DIVISION OF STOCK
CHAPTER II. OF MONEY, CONSIDERED AS APARTICULAR BRANCH OF THE GENERAL STOCK OF THE SOCIETY,OR OF THE EXPENSE OF MAINTAINING THE NATIONAL CAPITAL
CHAPTER III. OF THE ACCUMULATION OF CAPITAL,OR OF PRODUCTIVE AND UNPRODUCTIVE ABOUR
CHAPTER IV. OF STOCK LENT AT INTEREST
CHAPTER V. OF THE DIFFERENT EMPLOYMENTS
BOOK III. OF THE DIFFERENT PROGRESS OF OPULENCE IN DIFFERENT NATIONS
CHAPTER I. OF THE NATURAL PROGRESS OF OPULENCE.
CHAPTER II. OF THE DISCOURAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT STATE OF EUROPE, AFTER THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
CHAPTER III. OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF CITIES AND TOWNS, AFTER THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
CHAPTER IV. HOW THE COMMERCE OF TOWNS CONTRIBUTED TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE COUNTRY
BOOK IV. OF SYSTEMS OF POLITICAL ECONOMY
CHAPTER I. OF THE PRINCIPLE OF THE COMMERCIAL OR MERCANTILE SYSTEM
CHAPTER II. OF RESTRAINTS UPON IMPORTATION FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES OF SUCH GOODS AS CAN BE PRODUCED AT HOME
CHAPTER III. OF THE EXTRAORDINARY RESTRAINTS UPON THE IMPORTATION OF GOODS OF ALMOST ALL KINDS, FROM THOSE COUNTRIES WITH WHICH THE BALANCE IS SUPPOSED TO EDISADVANTAGEOUS
CHAPTER IV. OF DRAWBACKS
CHAPTER V. OF BOUNTIES
CHAPTER VI. OF TREATIES OF COMMERCE
CHAPTER VII. OF COLONIES
CHAPTER VIII. CONCLUSION OF THE MER CANTILE
CHAPTER IX. OF THE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS, OR OF THOSE SYSTEMS OF POLITICAL ECONOMY WHICH REPRESENT THE PRODUCE OF LAND, AS EITHER THE SOLE OR THE PRINCIPAL SOURCE OF THE REVENUE AND WEALTH OF EVERY COUNTRY
BOOK V. OF THE REVENUE OF THE SOVEREIGN OR COMMONWEALTH
CHAPTER I. OF THE EXPENSES OF THE SOVEREIGN OR COMMONWEALTH
CHAPTER II. OF THE SOURCES OF THE GENERAL OR PUBLIC REVENUE OF THE SOCIETY
CHAPTER III. OF PUBLIC DEBTS
While property remains in the possession of the same person, whatever permanent taxes may have been imposed upon it, they have never been intended to diminish or take away any part of its capital value, but only some part of the revenue arising from it. But when property changes hands, when it is transmitted either from the dead to the living, or from the living to the living, such taxes have frequently been imposed upon it as necessarily take away some part of its capital value.
The transference of all sorts of property from the dead to the living, and that of immoveable property of land and houses from the living to the living, are transactions which are in their nature either public and notorious, or such as cannot be long concealed. Such transactions, therefore, may be taxed directly. The transference of stock or moveable property, from the living to the living, by the lending of money, is frequently a secret transaction, and may always be made so.
It cannot easily, therefore, be taxed directly. It has been taxed indirectly in two different ways; first, by requiring that the deed, containing the obligation to repay, should be written upon paper or parchment which had paid a certainstamp duty, otherwise not to be valid; secondly, by requiring, under the likepenalty of invalidity, that it should be recorded either in a public or secret register, and by imposing certain duties upon such registration. Stamp duties,and duties of registration, have frequently been imposed likewise upon the deeds transferring property of all kinds from the dead to the living, and upon those transferring immoveable property from the living to the living;transactions which might easily have been taxed directly.
The vicesima hereditatum, or the twentieth penny of inheritances, imposed by Augustus upon the ancient Romans, was a tax upon the transferertce of property from the dead to the living. Dion Cassius,the author who writesconcerning it the least indistinctly, says, that it was imposed upon allsuccessions, legacies and donations, in case of death, except upon those to thenearest relations, and to the poor.
Of the same kind is the Dutch tax upon successions.2 Collateral successions are taxed according to the degree of relation, from five to thirty percent upon the whole value of the succession. Testamentary donations, or legacies to collaterals, are subject to the like duties. Those from husband to wife, or fromwife to husband, to the fiftieth penny. The luctuosa hered it as, the mournful succession of ascendants to descendants, to the twentieth penny only.