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  • 国富论(英文版)[平装]
  • 共3个商家     70.60元~78.40
  • 作者:亚当·斯密(Smith.A.)(作者)
  • 出版社:中央编译出版社;第1版(2012年1月1日)
  • 出版时间:
  • 版次 :
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  • ISBN:9787511711090

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    《国富论(英文版)》编辑推荐:THE ANNUAL labour of every nation is the fund whichoriginally supplies it with all the necessaries and conveniencies of life which it annually consumes, and which consist always eitherin the immediate produce of that labour, or in what is purchasedwith that produce from other nations.
    Accordin8, therefore, as this produce, or what is purchased with it, bears a greater or smaller proportion to the number of those who are toconsume it, the nation will be better or worse supplied with all the necessaries and conveniencies for which it has occasion.

    作者简介

    作者:(英国)亚当·斯密(Smith.A.)

    亚当·斯密,ADAM SMITH (1723-1790) was a Scottish social philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment, Smith is the author of The Theoiry of Moral Sentiments and An Inqu Lry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnumopus and the first modern work of economics. It earned him an enormous reputation and would become one ofthe most influential works on economics ever published. Smith is widely ated as the father of modern economics and capitalism.

    目录

    INTRODUCTION AND PLAN OF THE WORK
    BOOK I. OF THE CAUSES OF IMPROVEMENT IN THE PRODUCTIVE POWERS OF LABOUR,AND OF THE ORDER ACCORDING TO WHICH ITS PRODUCE IS NATURALLY DISTRIBUTED AM'ONG THE DIFFERENT RANKS OF THE PEOPLE
    CHAPTER I. OF THE DIVISION OF IABOUR
    CHAPTER II. OF THE PRINCIPLE WHICH GIVES OCCASION TO THE DIVISION OF LABOUR
    CHAPTER III, THAT THE DIVISION OF IABOUR IS
    LIMITED BY THE EXTENT OF THE MARKET
    CHAPTER IV. OF THE ORIGIN AND USE OF MONEY
    CHAPTER V. OF THE REAL AND NOMINAL PRICE OF COMMODITIES, OR OF THEIR PRICE IN LABOUR,AND THEIR PRICE IN MONEY
    CHAPTER VI. OF THE COMPONENT PART OF THE PRICE OF COMMODITIES
    CHAPTER VII. OF THE NATURAL AND MARKET PRICE OF COMMODITIES
    CHAPTER VIII. OF THE WAGES OF LABOUR
    CHAPTER IX. OF THE PROFITS OF STOCK
    CHAPTER X. OF WAGES AND PROFIT IN THE
    DIFFERENT EMPLOYMENTS OF LABOUR AND STOCK
    CHAPTER XI. OF THE RENT OF LAND

    BOOK II. OF THE NATURE, ACCUMULATION,AND EMPLOYMENT OF STOCK
    CHAPTER I. OF THE DIVISION OF STOCK
    CHAPTER II. OF MONEY, CONSIDERED AS APARTICULAR BRANCH OF THE GENERAL STOCK OF THE SOCIETY,OR OF THE EXPENSE OF MAINTAINING THE NATIONAL CAPITAL
    CHAPTER III. OF THE ACCUMULATION OF CAPITAL,OR OF PRODUCTIVE AND UNPRODUCTIVE ABOUR
    CHAPTER IV. OF STOCK LENT AT INTEREST
    CHAPTER V. OF THE DIFFERENT EMPLOYMENTS

    BOOK III. OF THE DIFFERENT PROGRESS OF OPULENCE IN DIFFERENT NATIONS
    CHAPTER I. OF THE NATURAL PROGRESS OF OPULENCE.
    CHAPTER II. OF THE DISCOURAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT STATE OF EUROPE, AFTER THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
    CHAPTER III. OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF CITIES AND TOWNS, AFTER THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
    CHAPTER IV. HOW THE COMMERCE OF TOWNS CONTRIBUTED TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE COUNTRY

    BOOK IV. OF SYSTEMS OF POLITICAL ECONOMY
    CHAPTER I. OF THE PRINCIPLE OF THE COMMERCIAL OR MERCANTILE SYSTEM
    CHAPTER II. OF RESTRAINTS UPON IMPORTATION FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES OF SUCH GOODS AS CAN BE PRODUCED AT HOME
    CHAPTER III. OF THE EXTRAORDINARY RESTRAINTS UPON THE IMPORTATION OF GOODS OF ALMOST ALL KINDS, FROM THOSE COUNTRIES WITH WHICH THE BALANCE IS SUPPOSED TO EDISADVANTAGEOUS
    CHAPTER IV. OF DRAWBACKS
    CHAPTER V. OF BOUNTIES
    CHAPTER VI. OF TREATIES OF COMMERCE
    CHAPTER VII. OF COLONIES
    CHAPTER VIII. CONCLUSION OF THE MER CANTILE
    SYSTEM
    CHAPTER IX. OF THE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS, OR OF THOSE SYSTEMS OF POLITICAL ECONOMY WHICH REPRESENT THE PRODUCE OF LAND, AS EITHER THE SOLE OR THE PRINCIPAL SOURCE OF THE REVENUE AND WEALTH OF EVERY COUNTRY

    BOOK V. OF THE REVENUE OF THE SOVEREIGN OR COMMONWEALTH
    CHAPTER I. OF THE EXPENSES OF THE SOVEREIGN OR COMMONWEALTH
    CHAPTER II. OF THE SOURCES OF THE GENERAL OR PUBLIC REVENUE OF THE SOCIETY
    CHAPTER III. OF PUBLIC DEBTS

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    While property remains in the possession of the same person, whatever permanent taxes may have been imposed upon it, they have never been intended to diminish or take away any part of its capital value, but only some part of the revenue arising from it. But when property changes hands, when it is transmitted either from the dead to the living, or from the living to the living, such taxes have frequently been imposed upon it as necessarily take away some part of its capital value.
    The transference of all sorts of property from the dead to the living, and that of immoveable property of land and houses from the living to the living, are transactions which are in their nature either public and notorious, or such as cannot be long concealed. Such transactions, therefore, may be taxed directly. The transference of stock or moveable property, from the living to the living, by the lending of money, is frequently a secret transaction, and may always be made so.
    It cannot easily, therefore, be taxed directly. It has been taxed indirectly in two different ways; first, by requiring that the deed, containing the obligation to repay, should be written upon paper or parchment which had paid a certainstamp duty, otherwise not to be valid; secondly, by requiring, under the likepenalty of invalidity, that it should be recorded either in a public or secret register, and by imposing certain duties upon such registration. Stamp duties,and duties of registration, have frequently been imposed likewise upon the deeds transferring property of all kinds from the dead to the living, and upon those transferring immoveable property from the living to the living;transactions which might easily have been taxed directly.
    The vicesima hereditatum, or the twentieth penny of inheritances, imposed by Augustus upon the ancient Romans, was a tax upon the transferertce of property from the dead to the living. Dion Cassius,the author who writesconcerning it the least indistinctly, says, that it was imposed upon allsuccessions, legacies and donations, in case of death, except upon those to thenearest relations, and to the poor.
    Of the same kind is the Dutch tax upon successions.2 Collateral successions are taxed according to the degree of relation, from five to thirty percent upon the whole value of the succession. Testamentary donations, or legacies to collaterals, are subject to the like duties. Those from husband to wife, or fromwife to husband, to the fiftieth penny. The luctuosa hered it as, the mournful succession of ascendants to descendants, to the twentieth penny only.