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  • 微观经济学(第19版?双语注疏本)[平装]
  • 共1个商家     52.00元~52.00
  • 作者:保罗?萨缪尔森(PaulA.Samuelson)(作者),威廉?诺德豪斯(WilliamD.Nordhaus)(作者),于健(译者)
  • 出版社:人民邮电出版社;第1版(2012年6月10日)
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  • ISBN:9787115279453

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    《微观经济学(第19版?双语注疏本)》是诺贝尔经济学奖获得者保罗?萨缪尔森英文绝笔精彩注疏,阅读这本第19版绝版萨缪尔森微观经济学的双语注疏形式既可以领略和欣赏到保罗?萨缪尔森深厚的英文写作文学素养,同时也可以通过注疏者独到的中文解读以及详尽的注释更加透彻了解萨缪尔森经济学。

    媒体推荐

    对萨缪尔森(1915-2009)的评价:
    在对提升经济理论科学分析水平的贡献上,萨缪尔森超过了当代任何一位经济学家。
    ——瑞典皇家科学院1970年诺贝尔经济学奖颁奖辞
    20世纪最重要的经济学家。
    ——《纽约时报》
    现代经济学之父。
    ——著名经济史学家Randall E. Parker
    20世纪后半叶最具影响力的经济学家……经济学家中最后一位通才,对贸易理论、宏观经济学、公共金融以及消费行为等均做出了重要贡献。
    ——《经济学人》杂志

    对萨缪尔森《经济学》的评价:
    无论怎样夸大萨缪尔森《经济学》对全世界的影响都不过分。
    ——《经济学人》杂志
    眼前的这本《微观经济学》(第19版)也许是所有19个版本中最为出色的一版。
    ——保罗?萨缪尔森《微观经济学》(第19版)

    作者简介

    作者:(美国)保罗·萨缪尔森(Paul A.Samuelson),(美国)威廉·诺德豪斯(William D.Nordhaus) 译者:于健

    保罗·萨缪尔森(Paul A.Samuelson),毕业于芝加哥大学和哈佛大学,是麻省理工学院经济学系的创始人。他的许多著作使他在年轻时就赢得了世界性的声誉。他于1970年获得诺贝尔经济学奖,是美国第一个获得此项大奖的经济学家。萨缪尔森教授曾长期为美国《新闻周刊》的经济学栏目撰稿,曾担任美国总统约翰·肯尼迪的经济顾问,属于那种能够同普通民众进行交流和沟通的为数极少的科学家之一。萨缪尔森常出席国会听证,并为联邦储备、财政部、许多私人机构和非营利机构担任咨询专家。除了在麻省理工学院做研究工作和经常打网球之外,萨缪尔森教授还是纽约大学的客座教授。他的6个孩子(包括一次三胞胎)为萨缪尔森家族衍续了15个子孙。
    威廉·诺德豪斯(William D.Nordhaus),美国杰出经济学家之一,出生于新墨西哥州的阿尔布开克。本科就读于耶鲁大学,经济学博士学位在麻省理工学院获得。现任耶鲁大学斯特林经济学教授,考尔斯经济学研究基金会理事,国家经济研究局(NBER)研究员。诺德豪斯的经济学研究范围很宽,包括环境、能源、技术变革和经济增长,以及利润和生产率的增长趋势。此外,对经济政策研究非常感兴趣。1977~1979年是卡特总统经济顾问委员会的成员,曾多次出席政府顾问委员会的会议,不时为《纽约图书评论》和其他报刊撰文。在耶鲁大学他主讲经济学原理课程。诺德豪斯教授与妻子芭芭拉居住在康涅狄格州的纽黑文市。教学写作之余,他喜欢音乐、旅游、滑雪,和家人在一起。
    于健,中国政法大学教授,文革前的“老三届”,文革后的“77届”;国内重点高校中率先同步引进萨缪尔森各版次经典的经济学教材,18年如一日用中西哲学的不同思维研究萨缪尔森经济学、采用中英双语教育的学者。于健教授先后求学和任教于北京大学、中国政法大学、首都师范大学、辽宁师范大学、沈阳师范大学、北京工商大学、山西晋中学院等,曾应邀出任了欧盟EuroSinoEducationalNetwork项目的中方首席主持人、国家级火炬计划《中小学数字化图书馆》和《全国中小学通用校园网》等项目主持人。于健教授在长期的教学实践中,努力探索教学改革,思考并著述中国教育改革和出路等问题,代表作有《中国教育的出路问题》和《中国英语教育改革探思录》等。

    目录

    一位中道老者的宣言
    前 言
    经济学与互联网
    第一编 基本概念
    第1章 经济学的主要概念
    第1章附录 如何看图
    第2章 现代混合经济
    第3章 供给和需求的基本原理
    第二编 微观经济学:供给、需求和产品市场
    第4章 供给和需求:弹性和应用
    第5章 需求和消费者行为
    第5章附录 消费均衡的几何分析
    第6章 生产和企业组织
    第7章 成本分析
    第7章附录 生产、成本理论和企业决策
    第8章 完全竞争市场分析
    第9章 不完全竞争及垄断
    第10章 几个竞争者之间的竞争
    第11章 不确定性经济学
    第三编 要素市场 :劳动、土地和资本
    第12章 市场如何决定收入
    第13章 劳动市场
    第14章 土地、自然资源和环境
    第15章 资本、利息和利润
    A Centrist Proclamation xxxi
    Preface xxxiii
    For the Student: Economics and the Internet xxxviii
    PART ONE BASIC CONCEPTS 1
    Chapter 1 The Central Concepts of Economics 3
    Appendix 1 How to Read Graphs 18
    Chapter 2 The Modern Mixed Economy 25
    Chapter 3 Basic Elements of Supply and Demand 45
    PART TWO MICROECONOMICS: SUPPLY,DEMAND, AND PRODUCT MARKETS 63
    Chapter 4 Supply and Demand: Elasticity and Applications 65
    Chapter 5 Demand and Consumer Behavior 84
    Appendix 5 Geometrical Analysis of Consumer Equilibrium 101
    Chapter 6 Production and Business Organization 107
    Chapter 7 Analysis of Costs 126
    Appendix 7 Production, Cost Theory, and Decisions of the Firm 144
    Chapter 8 Analysis of Perfectly Competitive Markets 149
    Chapter 9 Imperfect Competition and Monopoly 169
    Chapter 10 Competition among the Few 187
    Chapter 11 Economics of Uncertainty 211
    PART THREE FACTOR MARKETS: LABOR, LAND,AND CAPITAL 227
    Chapter 12 How Markets Determine Incomes 229
    Chapter 13 The Labor Market 248
    Chapter 14 Land, Natural Resources, and the Environment 267
    Chapter 15 Capital, Interest, and Profits 283
    Contents in Brief
    PART FOUR APPLICATIONS OF ECONOMIC
    PRINCIPLES 301
    Chapter 16 Government Taxation and Expenditure 303
    Chapter 17 Efficiency vs. Equality: The Big Tradeoff 323
    Chapter 18 International Trade 339
    Glossary of Terms 365
    Index 392
    第四编 经济学原理的应用
    第16章 政府税收和支出
    第17章 效率与公平的平衡
    第18章 国际贸易
    专业术语表
    索 引

    A Centrist Proclamation xxxi
    Preface xxxiii
    For the Student: Economics and the Internet xxxviii
    PART ONE BASIC CONCEPTS 1
    Chapter 1 The Central Concepts of Economics 3
    A. Why Study Economics? 3
    For Whom the Bell Toll 3
    Scarcity and Efficiency: The Twin Themes of Economics 3
    Definitions of Economics
    Scarcity and Efficiency
    Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
    The Logic of Economics 5
    Cool Heads at the Service of Warm Hearts 6
    B. The Three Problems of Economic Organization 7
    Market, Command, and Mixed Economies 8
    C. Society’s Technological Possibilities 8
    Inputs and Outputs 9
    The Production-Possibility Frontier 9
    Applying the PPF to Society’s Choices
    Opportunity Costs
    Efficiency
    Summary 15
    Concepts for Review 15
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 16
    Questions for Discussion 16
    Appendix 1 How to Read Graphs 18
    The Production-Possibility Frontier 18
    Production-Possibility Graph
    A Smooth Curve
    Slopes and Lines
    Slope of a Curved Line
    Slope as the Marginal Value
    Shifts of and Movement along Curves
    Some Special Graphs
    Summary to Appendix 23
    Concepts for Review 24
    Questions for Discussion 24
    详细目录
    一位中道老者的宣言
    前 言
    经济学与互联网
    第一编 基本概念
    第1章 经济学的主要概念
    A. 为什么学经济学
    战地钟声
    稀缺与效率:经济学的双重主题
    经济学的定义
    稀缺与效率
    微观经济学与宏观经济学
    经济学的逻辑
    热切的心情,冷静的头脑
    B. 经济组织的三个问题
    市场经济、指令经济与混合经济
    C. 社会的技术可能性
    投入和产出
    生产的可能性边界
    生产可能性边界的应用
    机会成本
    效 率
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第1章附录 如何看图
    生产可能性边界
    生产可能性图表
    一条平滑的曲线
    斜率和线段
    曲线的斜率
    作为边际值的斜率
    曲线的移动和沿着曲线移动
    某些特殊的图
    总 结
    概念复习
    问题讨论
    Contents
    Chapter 2 The Modern Mixed Economy 25
    A. The Market Mechanism 26
    Not Chaos, but Economic Order
    How Markets Solve the Three Economic Problems
    The Dual Monarchy
    A Picture of Prices and Markets
    The Invisible Hand
    B. Trade, Money, and Capital 30
    Trade, Specialization, and Division of Labor 31
    Money: The Lubricant of Exchange 33
    Capital 33
    Capital and Private Property
    C. The Visible Hand of Government 34
    Efficiency 35
    Imperfect Competition
    Externalities
    Public Goods
    Equity 38
    Macroeconomic Growth and Stability 39
    The Rise of the Welfare State 40
    Conservative Backlash
    The Mixed Economy Today
    Summary 41
    Concepts for Review 42
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 43
    Questions for Discussion 43
    Chapter 3 Basic Elements of Supply and Demand 45
    A. The Demand Schedule 46
    The Demand Curve 47
    Market Demand
    Forces behind the Demand Curve
    Shifts in Demand
    B. The Supply Schedule 51
    The Supply Curve 51
    Forces behind the Supply Curve
    Shifts in Supply
    C. Equilibrium of Supply and Demand 53
    Equilibrium with Supply and Demand Curves 54
    Effect of a Shift in Supply or Demand
    Interpreting Changes in Price and Quantity
    Supply, Demand, and Immigration
    Rationing by Prices 59
    第2章 现代混合经济
    A. 市场机制
    不是混乱,而是经济秩序
    市场如何解决三个经济问题
    双重君主
    价格和市场关系图
    看不见的手
    B. 贸易、货币和资本
    贸易、专业化和劳动分工
    货币:交换的润滑剂
    资 本
    资本和私有财产
    C. 政府的看得见的手
    效 率
    不完全竞争
    外部性
    公共物品
    公 平
    宏观经济增长与稳定
    福利国家的产生
    保守派的反击
    当今的混合经济
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第3章 供给与需求的基本原理
    A. 需求表
    需求曲线
    市场需求
    需求曲线背后的因素
    需求的变动
    B. 供给表
    供给曲线
    供给曲线背后的因素
    供给的变动
    C. 供给与需求的均衡
    供给曲线与需求曲线的均衡
    供给或需求的移动对均衡的影响
    解释价格和数量的变动
    供给、需求和移民
    通过价格配给
    Summary 60
    Concepts for Review 61
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 61
    Questions for Discussion 61
    PART TWO MICROECONOMICS: SUPPLY,DEMAND, AND PRODUCT MARKETS 63
    Chapter 4 Supply and Demand: Elasticity and Applications 65
    A. Price Elasticity of Demand and Supply 65
    Price Elasticity of Demand 65
    Calculating Elasticities
    Price Elasticity in Diagrams
    A Shortcut for Calculating Elasticities
    The Algebra of Elasticities
    Elasticity Is Not the Same as Slope
    Elasticity and Revenue 70
    The Paradox of the Bumper Harvest
    Price Elasticity of Supply 72
    B. Applications to Major Economic Issues 73
    The Economics of Agriculture 73
    Long-Run Relative Decline of Farming
    Impact of a Tax on Price and Quantity 75
    Minimum Floors and Maximum Ceilings 77
    The Minimum-Wage Controversy
    Energy Price Controls
    Rationing by the Queue, by Coupons, or by the Purse?
    Summary 81
    Concepts for Review 82
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 82
    Questions for Discussion 82
    Chapter 5 Demand and Consumer Behavior 84
    Choice and Utility Theory 84
    Marginal Utility and the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility
    A Numerical Example
    Derivation of Demand Curves 87
    The Equimarginal Principle
    Why Demand Curves Slope Downward
    Leisure and the Optimal Allocation of Time
    Analytical Developments in Utility Theory
    An Alternative Approach: Substitution Effect and Income Effect 89
    Substitution Effect
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第二编 微观经济学:供给、需求和产品市场
    第4章 供给和需求:弹性和应用
    A. 需求和供给的价格弹性
    需求的价格弹性
    弹性的计算
    价格弹性图
    计算弹性的捷径
    弹性的代数计算
    弹性与斜率不同
    弹性和收益
    农作物大丰收背后的悖论
    供给的价格弹性
    B. 弹性在主要经济问题中的应用
    农业经济学
    农业在长期相对衰落
    税收对价格和数量的影响
    最低下限与最高上限
    关于最低工资的争议
    能源价格管制
    通过排队、配给券及资金进行配给
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第5章 需求和消费者行为
    选择和效用理论
    边际效用和边际效用递减规律
    效用的数字图表说明
    需求曲线的衍生
    等边际法则
    为什么需求曲线向下倾斜
    闲暇和时间的最优分配
    效用理论的应用分析
    另一种分析方法:替代效应和收入效应
    替代效应
    Income Effect
    From Individual to Market Demand 91
    Demand Shifts
    Substitutes and Complements
    Empirical Estimates of Price and Income Elasticities
    The Economics of Addiction 94
    The Paradox of Value 95
    Consumer Surplus 96
    Applications of Consumer Surplus
    Summary 98
    Concepts for Review 99
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 99
    Questions for Discussion 99
    Appendix 5 Geometrical Analysis of Consumer Equilibrium 101
    The Indifference Curve 101
    Law of Substitution
    The Indifference Map
    Budget Line or Budget Constraint 103
    The Equilibrium Position of Tangency 104
    Changes in Income and Price 104
    Income Change
    Single Price Change
    Deriving the Demand Curve 105
    Summary to Appendix 106
    Concepts for Review 106
    Questions for Discussion 106
    Chapter 6 Production and Business Organization 107
    A. Theory of Production and Marginal Products 107
    Basic Concepts 107
    The Production Function
    Total, Average, and Marginal Product
    The Law of Diminishing Returns
    Returns to Scale 111
    Short Run and Long Run 112
    Technological Change 113
    Productivity and the Aggregate Production Function 116
    Productivity
    Productivity Growth from Economies of Scale and Scope
    Empirical Estimates of the Aggregate Production Function
    B. Business Organizations 118
    The Nature of the Firm 118
    收入效应
    从个人需求到市场需求
    需求的移动
    替代品和互补品
    价格弹性和收入弹性的经验估计
    上瘾物品的经济学问题
    价值悖论
    消费者剩余
    消费者剩余的应用
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第5章附录 消费者均衡的几何分析
    无差异曲线
    替代规律
    无差异曲线图
    预算线或预算约束
    切点的均衡位置
    收入和价格的变化
    收入变化
    一种物品的价格变化
    推导需求曲线
    总 结
    概念复习
    问题讨论
    第6章 生产和企业组织
    A. 生产理论和边际产量
    基本概念
    生产函数
    总产量、平均产量和边际产量
    边际收益递减规律
    规模报酬
    短期和长期
    技术变革
    生产率与总生产函数
    生产率
    规模经济和范围经济引起的生产率上升
    总生产函数的经验估计
    B. 企业组织
    企业的性质
    Big, Small, and Infi nitesimal Businesses 119
    The Individual Proprietorship
    The Partnership
    The Corporation
    Ownership, Control, and Executive Compensation
    Summary 123
    Concepts for Review 124
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 124
    Questions for Discussion 124
    Chapter 7 Analysis of Costs 126
    A. Economic Analysis of Costs 126
    Total Cost: Fixed and Variable 126
    Fixed Cost
    Variable Cost
    Definition of Marginal Cost 127
    Average Cost 129
    Average or Unit Cost
    Average Fixed and Variable Costs
    The Relation between Average Cost and Marginal Cost
    The Link between Production and Costs 132
    Diminishing Returns and U-Shaped Cost Curves
    Choice of Inputs by the Firm 134
    Marginal Products and the Least-Cost Rule
    B. Economic Costs and Business Accounting 135
    The Income Statement, or Statement of Profit and Loss 135
    The Balance Sheet 136
    Accounting Conventions
    Financial Finagling
    C. Opportunity Costs 139
    Opportunity Cost and Markets 140
    Summary 141
    Concepts for Review 142
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 142
    Questions for Discussion 142
    Appendix 7 Production, Cost Theory, and Decisions of the Firm 144
    A Numerical Production Function 144
    The Law of Diminishing Marginal Product 144
    Least-Cost Factor Combination for a Given Output 145
    Equal-Product Curves
    Equal-Cost Lines
    Equal-Product and Equal-Cost Contours: Least-Cost Tangency
    大企业、小企业和微型企业
    独资经营
    合伙制
    公 司
    所有权、控制和高管薪酬
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第7章 成本分析
    A. 成本的经济分析
    总成本:固定成本和可变成本
    固定成本
    可变成本
    边际成本的定义
    平均成本
    平均成本或单位成本
    平均固定成本和平均可变成本
    平均成本和边际成本之间的关系
    生产与成本之间的联系
    收益递减和U 形成本曲线
    企业的投入选择
    边际产量和最低成本法则
    B. 经济成本和企业会计
    收益表或损益表
    资产负债表
    会计惯例
    财务欺诈
    C. 机会成本
    机会成本和市场
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第7章附录 生产、成本理论和企业决策
    数值化的生产函数
    边际产量递减规律
    既定产量的最低成本要素组合
    等产量曲线
    等成本线
    等产量曲线和等成本曲线的切点:最低成本
    Least-Cost Conditions
    Summary to Appendix 147
    Concepts for Review 148
    Questions for Discussion 148
    Chapter 8 Analysis of Perfectly Competitive Markets 149
    A. Supply Behavior of the Competitive Firm 149
    Behavior of a Competitive Firm 149
    Profit Maximization
    Perfect Competition
    Competitive Supply Where Marginal Cost Equals Price
    Total Cost and the Shutdown Condition
    B. Supply Behavior in Competitive Industries 154
    Summing All Firms’ Supply Curves to Get Market Supply 154
    Short-Run and Long-Run Equilibrium 155
    The Long Run for a Competitive Industry
    C. Special Cases of Competitive Markets 157
    General Rules 157
    Constant Cost
    Increasing Costs and Diminishing Returns
    Fixed Supply and Economic Rent
    Backward-Bending Supply Curve
    Shifts in Supply
    D. Efficiency and Equity of Competitive Markets 160
    Evaluating the Market Mechanism 160
    The Concept of Efficiency
    Efficiency of Competitive Equilibrium
    Equilibrium with Many Consumers and Markets
    Marginal Cost as a Benchmark for Efficiency
    Qualifications 163
    Market Failures
    Two Cheers for the Market, but Not Three
    Summary 165
    Concepts for Review 166
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 166
    Questions for Discussion 166
    Chapter 9 Imperfect Competition and Monopoly 169
    A. Patterns of Imperfect Competition 169
    Definition of Imperfect Competition
    Varieties of Imperfect Competitors 171
    Monopoly
    Oligopoly
    成本最小的条件
    总 结
    概念复习
    问题讨论
    第8章 完全竞争市场分析
    A. 竞争企业的供给行为
    竞争企业的行为
    利润最大化
    完全竞争
    边际成本等于价格时的竞争供给
    总成本与停业条件
    B. 竞争行业的供给行为
    加总所有企业的供给曲线得到市场供给曲线
    短期和长期均衡
    竞争性行业的长期均衡
    C. 竞争市场的特殊情况
    一般原则
    成本不变
    成本递增,收益递减
    固定供给与经济租金
    向后弯曲的供给曲线
    供给的移动
    D. 竞争市场的效率和公平
    对市场机制的评价
    效率的概念
    竞争性均衡的效率
    众多消费者和市场的均衡
    边际成本是效率的标杆
    限 制
    市场失灵
    市场有优点,也有缺点
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第9章 不完全竞争及垄断
    A. 不完全竞争的模式
    不完全竞争的定义
    形形色色的不完全竞争者
    垄 断
    寡 头
    Monopolistic Competition
    Sources of Market Imperfections 173
    Costs and Market Imperfection
    Barriers to Entry
    B. Monopoly Behavior 177
    The Concept of Marginal Revenue 177
    Price, Quantity, and Total Revenue
    Marginal Revenue and Price
    Elasticity and Marginal Revenue
    Profit-Maximizing Conditions 180
    Monopoly Equilibrium in Graphs
    Perfect Competition as a Polar Case of Imperfect Competition
    The Marginal Principle: Let Bygones Be Bygones 183
    Loss Aversion and the Marginal Principle
    Summary 184
    Concepts for Review 185
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 185
    Questions for Discussion 186
    Chapter 10 Competition among the Few 187
    A. Behavior of Imperfect Competitors 187
    Measures of Market Power
    The Nature of Imperfect Competition 189
    Theories of Imperfect Competition 189
    Collusive Oligopoly
    Monopolistic Competition
    Rivalry among the Few
    Price Discrimination 193
    B. Game Theory 195
    Thinking about Price Setting
    Basic Concepts 196
    Alternative Strategies
    Games, Games, Everywhere …
    C. Public Policies to Combat Market Power 199
    Economic Costs of Imperfect Competition 199
    The Cost of Inflated Prices and Reduced Output
    The Static Costs of Imperfect Competition
    Public Policies on Imperfect Competition
    Regulating Economic Activity 201
    Why Regulate Industry?
    Containing Market Power
    Remedying Information Failures
    Antitrust Law and Economics 203
    垄断竞争
    市场不完全竞争的根源
    成本与市场的不完全性
    进入壁垒
    B. 垄断行为
    边际收益的概念
    价格、数量和总收益
    边际收益和价格
    弹性和边际收益
    利润最大化的条件
    垄断均衡图示
    完全竞争是不完全竞争的一个极端情况
    边际原则:让过去成为过去
    损失规避和边际原则
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第10章 几个竞争者之间的竞争
    A. 不完全竞争者的行为
    市场力量的衡量
    不完全竞争的实质
    不完全竞争理论
    勾结寡头
    垄断竞争
    寡头之间的竞争
    价格歧视
    B. 博弈论
    定价策略
    基本概念
    其他策略
    博弈无处不在
    C. 公共政策对市场的削弱
    不完全竞争的经济成本
    物价上涨与产出降低的成本
    不完全竞争的静态成本
    不完全竞争的公共政策
    对经济活动的干预
    为何干预产业
    遏制市场力量
    弥补信息失灵
    反垄断法与经济意义
    The Framework Statutes
    Basic Issues in Antitrust Law: Conduct and Structure 204
    Illegal Conduct
    Structure: Is Bigness Badness?
    Antitrust Laws and Efficiency
    Summary 207
    Concepts for Review 208
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 208
    Questions for Discussion 209
    Chapter 11 Economics of Uncertainty 211
    A. Economics of Risk and Uncertainty 211
    Speculation: Shipping Assets or Goods Across Space and Time 212
    Arbitrage and Geographic Price Patterns
    Speculation and Price Behavior over Time
    Shedding Risks through Hedging
    The Economic Impacts of Speculation
    Risk and Uncertainty 215
    B. The Economics of Insurance 216
    Capital Markets and Risk Sharing
    Market Failures in Information 217
    Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection
    Social Insurance 218
    C. Health Care: The Problem That Won’t Go Away 219
    The Economics of Medical Care 219
    Special Economic Features of Health Care
    Health Care as a Social Insurance Program
    Rationing Health Care
    D. Innovation and Information 221
    Schumpeter’s Radical Innovation
    The Economics of Information
    Intellectual Property Rights
    The Dilemma of the Internet
    Summary 224
    Concepts for Review 225
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 225
    Questions for Discussion 225
    PART THREE FACTOR MARKETS: LABOR,
    LAND, AND CAPITAL 227
    Chapter 12 How Markets Determine Incomes 229
    A. Income and Wealth 229
    框架条例
    反垄断法的基本问题:行为和结构
    非法行为
    结构:大的不好吗
    反垄断法与效率
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第11章 不确定性经济学
    A. 风险和不确定性经济学
    投机:资产与商品的跨时空调配
    套利和价格地理格局
    不同时间的投机和价格行为
    通过套期保值分摊风险
    投机的经济影响
    风险和不确定性
    B. 保险经济学
    资本市场与风险分担
    信息的市场失灵
    道德风险与逆向选择
    社会保险
    C. 卫生保健:问题不会消失
    医疗保健经济学
    卫生保健的特殊经济特点
    社会保险计划中的卫生保健
    医疗护理分配
    D. 创新与信息
    熊彼特的激进式创新
    信息经济学
    知识产权
    互联网的困境
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第三编 要素市场 :劳动、土地和资本
    第12章 市场如何决定收入
    A. 收入与财富
    Income 230
    Factor Incomes vs. Personal Incomes
    Role of Government
    Wealth 231
    B. Input Pricing by Marginal Productivity 232
    The Nature of Factor Demands 233
    Demands for Factors Are Derived Demands
    Demands for Factors Are Interdependent
    Distribution Theory and Marginal Revenue Product 235
    Marginal Revenue Product
    The Demand for Factors of Production 236
    Factor Demands for Profit-Maximizing Firms
    Marginal Revenue Product and the Demand for Factors
    Supply of Factors of Production 238
    Determination of Factor Prices by Supply and Demand 239
    The Distribution of National Income 241
    Marginal-Productivity Theory with Many Inputs
    An Invisible Hand for Incomes? 243
    Summary 244
    Concepts for Review 245
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 245
    Questions for Discussion 245
    Chapter 13 The Labor Market 248
    A. Fundamentals of Wage Determination 248
    The General Wage Level 248
    Demand for Labor 249
    Marginal Productivity Differences
    International Comparisons
    The Supply of Labor 251
    Determinants of Supply
    Empirical Findings
    Wage Differentials 253
    Differences in Jobs: Compensating Wage Differentials
    Differences in People: Labor Quality
    Differences in People: The“ Rents” of Unique Individuals
    Segmented Markets and Noncompeting Groups
    B. Labor Market Issues and Policies 257
    The Economics of Labor Unions 257
    Government and Collective Bargaining
    How Unions Raise Wages 258
    Theoretical Indeterminacy of Collective Bargaining
    Effects on Wages and Employment 259
    收 入
    要素收入和个人收入
    政府的角色
    财 富
    B. 边际生产率决定投入的价格
    要素需求的性质
    要素需求是派生需求
    要素需求相互依赖
    分配理论和边际收益产量
    边际收益产量
    生产要素的需求
    追求利润最大化的厂商的要素需求
    边际收益产量和要素需求
    生产要素的供给
    供给和需求决定要素价格
    国民收入的分配
    多种投入要素的边际生产率理论
    收入分配中是否也存在看不见的手
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第13章 劳动市场
    A. 工资决定的基本理论
    一般工资水平
    对劳动的需求
    边际生产率差异
    国际比较
    劳动的供给
    供给的决定因素
    实证发现
    工资差异
    工种之间的差异:补偿性工资差异
    补偿性工资的差异:劳动质量
    人们的差异:独特个体的“租金”
    分割的市场和非竞争性群体
    B. 劳工市场的问题与政策
    工会组织的经济意义
    政府和集体协议
    工会如何提高工资
    集体协议在理论上的含糊之处
    对工资和就业的影响
    Has Unionization Raised Wages?
    Unions and Classical Unemployment
    Discrimination 260
    Economic Analysis of Discrimination 261
    Definition of Discrimination
    Discrimination by Exclusion
    Taste for Discrimination
    Statistical Discrimination
    Economic Discrimination Against Women 263
    Empirical Evidence 263
    Reducing Labor Market Discrimination 264
    Uneven Progress
    Summary 264
    Concepts for Review 265
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 265
    Questions for Discussion 266
    Chapter 14 Land, Natural Resources, and the Environment 267
    A. The Economics of Natural Resources 267
    Resource Categories 268
    Fixed Land and Rents 269
    Rent as Return to Fixed Factors
    Taxing Land
    B. Environmental Economics 271
    Externalities 271
    Public vs. Private Goods
    Market Inefficiency with Externalities 272
    Analysis of Inefficiency
    Valuing Damages
    Graphical Analysis of Pollution
    Policies to Correct Externalities 275
    Government Programs
    Private Approaches
    Climate Change: To Slow or Not to Slow 278
    Quarrel and Pollute, or Reason and Compute?
    Summary 280
    Concepts for Review 281
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 281
    Questions for Discussion 281
    Chapter 15 Capital, Interest, and Profits 283
    A. Basic Concepts of Interest and Capital 283
    What Is Capital?
    工会化提高了工资吗
    工会与古典失业
    歧 视
    歧视的经济学分析
    歧视的定义
    排斥性歧视
    歧视的偏好
    统计性歧视
    对妇女的经济歧视
    经验证据
    减少劳工市场歧视
    不平坦的进步
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第14章 土地、自然资源和环境
    A. 自然资源的经济学问题
    资源种类
    固定数量的土地和租金
    作为固定要素收益的租金
    对土地征税
    B. 环境经济学
    外部性
    公共物品和私人物品
    外部性造成的市场低效率
    对低效率的分析
    对危害的评估
    对污染的图形分析
    制止外部性的政策
    政府计划
    自主模式
    气候变化:放缓还是加快
    争议和污染,争辩和计算
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第15章 资本、利息和利润
    A. 利息和资本的基本概念
    什么是资本
    Prices and Rentals on Investments
    Capital vs. Financial Assets
    The Rate of Return on Investments
    Rates of Return and Interest Rates 284
    Rate of Return on Capital
    Financial Assets and Interest Rates
    The Present Value of Assets 285
    Present Value for Perpetuities
    General Formula for Present Value
    Acting to Maximize Present Value
    The Mysterious World of Interest Rates 287
    Real vs. Nominal Interest Rates
    B. The Theory of Capital, Profits, and Interest 291
    Basic Capital Theory 291
    Roundaboutness
    Diminishing Returns and the Demand for Capital
    Determination of Interest and the Return on Capital
    Graphical Analysis of the Return on Capital
    Profits as a Return to Capital 295
    Reported Profit Statistics
    Determinants of Profits
    Empirical Evidence on Returns to Labor and Capital
    Summary 297
    Concepts for Review 298
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 298
    Questions for Discussion 299
    PART FOUR APPLICATIONS OF ECONOMIC
    PRINCIPLES 301
    Chapter 16 Government Taxation and Expenditure 303
    A. Government Control of the Economy 303
    The Tools of Government Policy 304
    Trends in the Size of Government
    The Growth of Government Controls and Regulation
    The Functions of Government 306
    Improving Economic Efficiency
    Reducing Economic Inequality
    Stabilizing the Economy through Macroeconomic Policies
    Conducting International Economic Policy
    Public-Choice Theory 308
    B. Government Expenditures 309
    Fiscal Federalism 309
    投资的价格和租金
    资本和金融资产
    投资回报率
    收益率和利率
    资本收益率
    金融资产和利率
    资产的现值
    永久资产的现值
    现值的一般公式
    使现值最大化
    利率的神秘世界
    实际利率和名义利率
    B. 资本、利润和利率理论
    基本资本理论
    迂回性
    收益递减和资本需求
    利率决定和资本收益
    资本收益的图形分析
    利润作为资本回报
    申报利润统计
    利润的决定因素
    劳动和资本收益的经验证据
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第四编 经济学原理的应用
    第16章 政府的税收和支出
    A. 政府对经济的控制
    政府的政策工具
    政府规模的变动趋势
    政府对经济的控制和管制增加
    政府的职能
    提高经济效率
    减少经济不公平
    通过宏观经济政策稳定经济
    执行国际经济政策
    公共选择理论
    B. 政府支出
    财政联邦制
    Federal Expenditures
    State and Local Expenditures
    Cultural and Technological Impacts 311
    C. Economic Aspects of Taxation 312
    Principles of Taxation 312
    Benefit vs. Ability-to-Pay Principles
    Horizontal and Vertical Equity
    Pragmatic Compromises in Taxation
    Federal Taxation 314
    The Individual Income Tax
    Social Insurance Taxes
    Corporation Taxes
    Consumption Taxes
    State and Local Taxes 317
    Property Tax
    Other Taxes
    Efficiency and Fairness in the Tax System 318
    The Goal of Efficient Taxation
    Efficiency vs. Fairness
    Final Word 320
    Summary 320
    Concepts for Review 321
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 321
    Questions for Discussion 321
    Chapter 17 Efficiency vs. Equality: The Big Tradeoff 323
    A. The Sources of Inequality 323
    The Distribution of Income and Wealth 324
    How to Measure Inequality among Income Classes
    Distribution of Wealth
    Inequality across Countries
    Poverty in America 327
    Who Are the Poor?
    Who Are the Rich?
    Trends in Inequality
    B. Antipoverty Policies 330
    The Rise of the Welfare State
    The Costs of Redistribution 331
    Redistribution Costs in Diagrams
    How Big Are the Leaks?
    Adding Up the Leaks
    Antipoverty Policies: Programs and Criticisms 333
    Income-Security Programs
    联邦支出
    州政府和地方政府的支出
    文化和技术影响
    C. 税收的经济学问题
    税收原则
    受益原则和支付能力原则
    横向公平和纵向公平原则
    税收的实用主义折中
    联邦税
    个人所得税
    社会保险税
    公司税
    消费税
    州和地方税收
    财产税
    其他税收
    税收体系的效率和公平
    有效税收的目标
    效率和公平
    最后的话
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第17章 效率与公平的平衡
    A. 不平等的根源
    收入和财富的分配
    如何在收入等级间计算不平等程度
    财富的分配
    国家间的不平等
    美国的贫穷问题
    谁是穷人
    谁是富人
    不平等的变化趋势
    B. 反贫穷政策
    福利国家的崛起
    再分配的成本
    再分配成本的图形分析
    漏洞有多大
    把所有的漏洞加总
    反贫穷政策:计划与批评
    收入保障计划
    Incentive Problems of the Poor
    The Battle over Welfare Reform 334
    Two Views of Poverty
    Income-Support Programs in the United States Today
    The Earned-Income Tax Credit
    The 1996 U.S. Welfare Reform
    Economic Policy for the 21st Century 336
    Summary 336
    Concepts for Review 337
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 337
    Questions for Discussion 338
    Chapter 18 International Trade 339
    A. The Nature of International Trade 339
    International vs. Domestic Trade
    Trends in Foreign Trade
    The Reasons for International Trade in Goods and Services 340
    Diversity in Natural Resources
    Differences in Tastes
    Differences in Costs
    B. Comparative Advantage among Nations 341
    The Principle of Comparative Advantage 341
    Uncommon Sense
    Ricardo’s Analysis of Comparative Advantage
    The Economic Gains from Trade
    Outsourcing as Another Kind of Trade
    Graphical Analysis of Comparative Advantage 344
    America without Trade
    Opening Up to Trade
    Extensions to Many Commodities and Countries 347
    Many Commodities
    Many Countries
    Triangular and Multilateral Trade
    Qualifications and Conclusions 348
    C. Protectionism 349
    Supply-and-Demand Analysis of Trade and Tariffs 350
    Free Trade vs. No Trade
    Trade Barriers
    The Economic Costs of Tariffs
    The Economics of Protectionism 355
    Noneconomic Goals
    Unsound Grounds for Tariffs
    Potentially Valid Arguments for Protection
    贫穷的激励问题
    福利改革斗争
    贫穷的两种观点
    今天美国的收入支持计划
    所得税抵免
    1996 年的美国福利改革
    21 世纪经济政策
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    第18章 国际贸易
    A. 国际贸易实质
    国际贸易与国内贸易
    对外贸易趋势
    商品和服务的国际贸易原因
    自然资源的多样性
    偏好不同
    成本不同
    B. 国际间的比较优势
    比较优势原则
    似乎有悖常识
    李嘉图的比较优势分析
    贸易的经济收益
    作为另一种贸易的外包
    比较优势的图形分析
    美国如果没有贸易
    贸易开放
    扩展到多种商品和多个国家
    多种商品
    多个国家
    三角贸易和多边贸易
    限制条件和结论
    C. 贸易保护主义
    贸易和关税的供求分析
    自由贸易和无贸易
    贸易壁垒
    关税的经济成本
    保护主义经济学
    非经济目标
    站不住脚的关税观
    可能符合逻辑的贸易保护观点
    Other Barriers to Trade
    Multilateral Trade Negotiations 359
    Negotiating Free Trade
    Appraisal
    Summary 361
    Concepts for Review 362
    Further Reading and Internet Websites 362
    Questions for Discussion 363
    Glossary of Terms 365
    Index 392
    其他贸易壁垒
    多边贸易谈判
    自由贸易谈判
    评 价
    总 结
    概念复习
    补充读物和互联网站
    问题讨论
    专业术语表
    索 引

    文摘

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    Bentham's views about utility seem familiar to many people today. But they were revolutionary 200 years ago because they emphasized that social and economic poli-cies should be designed to achieve certain practical results,whereas legitimacy at that time was usually based on tradi-tion, the divine right of kings, or religious doctrines.Today,many political thinkers defend their legislative proposals with utilitarian notions of what will make the largest num-ber of people best off.
    The next step in the development of utility theory came when the neoclassical economists--such as William Stanley Jevons (1835-1882)-extended Bentham's utility concept to explain consumer behavior. Jevons thought economic theory was a"calculus of pleasure and pain," and he developed the theory that rational people would base their consumption decisions on the extra or marginal util-ity of each good.
    The ideas of Jevons and his coworkers led directly to the modern theories of ordinal utility and indifference curves developed by Vilfredo Pareto, John Hicks, R. G. D.Allen, Paul Samuelson, and others in which the Benthamite ideas of measurable cardinal utility are no longer needed.
    the same marginal utility as the last pair of shoes, for shoes cost much more per unit than eggs. A satisfac-tory rule would be: If good A costs twice as much as good B, then buy good A only when its marginal utility is at least twice as great as good B's marginal utility.
    This leads to the equimarginal principle that I should arrange my consumption so that the last dol-lar spent on each good is bringing me the same mar-ginal utility.
    Equimarginal principle: The fundamental condi-tion of maximum satisfaction or utility is the equimar-ginal principle. It states that a consumer will achieve maximum satisfaction or utility when the marginal utility of the last dollar spent on a good is exactly the ssme as the marginal utility of the last dollar spent on any other good.
    Why must this condition hold? If any one good gave more marginal utility per dollar, I would increase my utility by taking money away from other goods
    ① and spending more on that good--until the law of
    (2) diminishing marginal utility drove its marginal utility per dollar down to equality with that of other goods.
    If any good gave less marginal utility per dollar than the common level, I would buy less of it until the marginal utility of the last dollar spent on it had risen back to the common level. The common marginal utility per dollar of all commodities in consumer equilibrium is called the marginal utility of income. It
    (3) measures the additional utility that would be gained
    (4) if the consumer could enjoy an extra dollar's worth
    (5) of consumption.