Ⅰ. Pharmacokinetics: General Principles
Ⅱ. Pharmacokinetics: Administration and Absorption of Drugs
Ⅲ. Pharmacokinetics: Distribution of Drugs
Ⅳ. Pharmacokinetics: Metabolism of Drugs
Ⅴ. Pharmacokinetics: Elimination of Drugs and Drug Metabolites
Ⅶ. Age-Dependent Pharmacology
Ⅷ. Regulations Governing the Development of New Drugs
Ⅰ. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System
Ⅲ. Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Ⅳ. Parasympathetic Blocking Drugs (Antimuscarinics)
Ⅴ. Ganglionic Blocking Drugs
Ⅵ. Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs
Ⅷ. α-Adrenoceptor Antagonists
Ⅸ. α-Adrenoceptor Antagonists
Ⅹ. Adrenergic Neuron-Blocking Drugs
Ⅺ. Drugs for Glaucoma
Ⅰ. Principles of General Anesthesia
Ⅱ. Inhalation Anesthetics
Ⅲ. Intravenous Anesthetics
Ⅳ. Local Anesthetics
Ⅴ. Sedative-Hypnotic and Antianxiety Drugs
Ⅶ. Antipsychotic Drugs (Neuroleptics)
Ⅷ. Lithium Carbonate
Ⅹ. CNS Stimulants
Ⅺ. Drugs for Movement Disorders
Ⅻ. Drugs for Alzheimer's Disease
Substance Abuse and Pain
Ⅰ. General Features of Substance Abuse
Ⅳ. CNS Stimulants
Ⅴ. Anabolic Steroids
Ⅷ. Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB)
Ⅹ. Narcotic Analgesics
Ⅺ. Analgesic Antipyretics
Ⅱ. Calcium Channel Blockers
Ⅳ. Drugs for Angina Pectoris
Ⅴ. Drugs for Congestive Heart Failure
Pharmacology of Blood and Blood Vessels
Ⅲ. Antiplatelet Drugs
Ⅳ. Antibleeding Drugs
Ⅴ. Drugs for Anemia
Autacoids, Drugs for Inflammatory and Gastrointestinal Disorders, and Vitamins
Ⅰ. Definition of Autacoids
Ⅲ. Histamine Blockers
Ⅳ. Antiasthmatic Drugs
Ⅵ. Drugs for Migraine Headaches
Ⅶ. Drugs for Rheumatoid Arthritis
Ⅷ. Drugs for Gout
Ⅸ. Drugs for Acne
Ⅺ. Drugs for Gastrointestinal Disorders
Drugs for Bacterial Infections
Drugs for Infections from Eukaryotic Organisms and Viruses
3. The side effects include:
a. ltyperkalemia, due to reduced aldosterone levels.
c. Coughing, due to increased bradykinin.
d. Skin rashes and angioedema.
e. Fetal toxicity. ACE inhibitors should not be used during pregnancy.
f. Excessive reduction of pressure in the glomerulus due to dilation of the efferent renal arterioles. ACE inhibitors should be avoided in patients with renalartery stenosis.
4. Captopril (Capoten) is the prototype ACE inhibitor.
a. It reduces angiotensin synthesis and lowers blood pressure by
ⅱ. Reduction of aldosterone release, which increases the loss of water
b. There are no autonomic effects and no changes in LDL cholesterol.
S. Enalapril (Vasotec) and lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril) have the same effects as captopril, but they have longer durations of action. AT1 ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTORS can be inhibited by angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) such as losartan (Cozaar) and candesartan (Atacand).
1. Effects are similar to those from ACE inhibitors. ARBs can therefore be used to treat CHF or hypertensive patients who cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors.
2. Coughing is less common because ACE is not inhibited and bradykinin levels do not rise.
3. However, ARBs are also fetotoxic and should not be used in pregnancy.G. CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS (e.g., amlodipine [Norvascl) vasodilate arterioles and reduce blood pressure.
1. They have no autonomic side effects and do not change LDL cholesterol.
2. There is an increased risk of heart attack or stroke with the short-acting dihydropyridines such as nifedinine.