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  • D膜[平装]
  • 共2个商家     63.20元~71.60
  • 作者:约翰逊(Clifford.V.Johnson)(作者)
  • 出版社:世界图书出版公司;第1版(2010年1月1日)
  • 出版时间:
  • 版次 :
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  • 包装:
  • ISBN:9787510005077

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    《D膜》是由世界图书出版公司出版的。

    作者简介

    作者:(英国)约翰逊(Clifford.V.Johnson)

    目录

    List of inserts
    Preface
    1 Overview and overture
    1.1 The classical dynamics of geometry
    1.2 Gravitons and photons
    1.3 Beyond classical gravity: perturbative strings
    1.4 Beyond perturbative strings: branes
    1.5 The quantum dynamics of geometry
    1.6 Things to do in the meantime
    1.7 On with the show

    2 Relativistic strings
    2.1 Motion of classical point particles
    2.2 Classical bosonic strings
    2.3 Quantised bosonic strings
    2.4 The sphere, the plane and the vertex operator
    2.5 Chan-Paton factors
    2.6 Unoriented strings
    2.7 Strings in curved backgrounds
    2.8 A quick look at geometry

    3 A closer look at the world-sheet
    3.1 Conformal invariance
    3.2 Revisiting the relativistic string
    3.3 Fixing the conformal gauge
    3.4 The closed string partition function

    4 Strings on circles and T-duality
    4.1 Fields and strings on a circle
    4.2 T-duality for closed strings
    4.3 A special radius: enhanced gauge symmetry
    4.4 The circle partition function
    4.5 Toriodal compactifications
    4.6 More on enhanced gauge symmetry
    4.7 Another special radius: bosonisation
    4.8 String theory on an orbifold
    4.9 T-duality for open strings: D-branes
    4.10 D-brane collective coordinates
    4.11 T-duality for unoriented strings: orientifolds

    5 Background fields and world-volume actions
    5.1 T-duality in background fields
    5.2 A first look at the D-brane world-volume action
    5.3 The Dirac-Born-Infeld action
    5.4 The action of T-duality
    5.5 Non-Abelian extensions
    5.6 D-branes and gauge theory
    5.7 BPS lumps on the world-volume

    6 D-brane tension and boundary states
    6.1 The D-brane tension
    6.2 The orientifold tension
    6.3 The boundary state formalism

    7 Supersymmetric strings
    7.1 The three basic superstring theories
    7.2 The two basic heterotic string theories
    7.3 The ten dimensional supergravities
    7.4 Heterotic toroidal compactifications
    7.5 Superstring toroidal compactification
    7.6 A superstring orbifold: discovering the K3 manifold

    8 Supersymmetric strings and T-duality
    8.1 T-duality of supersymmetric strings
    8.2 D-branes as BPS solitons
    8.3 The D-brane charge and tension
    8.4 The orientifold charge and tension
    8.5 Type I from type IIB, revisited
    8.6 Dirac charge quantisation
    8.7 D-branes in type I

    9 World-volume curvature couplings
    9.1 Tilted D-branes and branes within branes
    9.2 Anomalous gauge couplings
    9.3 Characteristic classes and invariant polynomials
    9.4 Anomalous curvature couplings
    9.5 A relation to anomalies
    9.6 D-branes and K-theory
    9.7 Further non-Abelian extensions
    9.8 Further curvature couplings

    10 The geometry of D-branes
    10.1 A look at black holes in four dimensions
    10.2 The geometry of D-branes
    10.3 Probing p-brane geometry with Dp-branes
    10.4 T-duality and supergravity solutions

    11 Multiple D-branes and bound states
    11.1 Dp and Dp from boundary conditions
    11.2 The BPS bound for the Dp-Dp' system
    11.3 Bound states of fundamental strings and D-strings
    11.4 The three-string junction
    11.5 Aspects of D-brane bound states

    12 Strong coupling and string duality
    12.1 Type IIB/type IIB duality
    12.2 SO(32) Type I/heterotic' duality
    12.3 Dual branes from 10D string-string duality
    12.4 Type IIA/M-theory duality
    12.5 Es x Es heterotic string/M-theory duality
    12.6 M2-branes and M5-branes
    12.7 U-duality

    13 D-branes and geometry I
    13.1 D-branes as probes of ALE spaces
    13.2 Fractional D-branes and wrapped D-branes
    13.3 Wrapped, fractional and stretched branes
    13.4 D-branes as instantons
    13.5 D-branes as monopoles
    13.6 The D-brane dielectric effect

    14 K3 orientifolds and compactification
    14.1 ZN orientifolds and Chan-Paton factors
    14.2 Loops and tadpoles for ALE ZM singularities
    14.3 Solving the tadpole equations
    14.4 Closed string spectra
    14.5 Open string spectra
    14.6 Anomalies for N=1 in six dimensions

    15 D-branes and geometry II
    15.1 Probing p with D(p-4)
    15.2 Probing six-branes: Kaluza-Klein monopoles and M-theory
    15.3 The moduli space of 3D supersymmetric gauge theory
    15.4 Wrapped branes and the enhangon mechanism
    15.5 The consistency of excision in supergravity
    15.6 The moduli space of pure glue in 3D

    16 Towards M- and F-theory
    16.1 The type IIB string and F-theory
    16.2 M-theory origins of F-theory
    16.3 Matrix theory

    17 D-branes and black holes
    17.1 Black hole thermodynamics
    17.2 The Euclidean action calculus
    17.3 D=5 Reissner-NordstrSm black holes
    17.4 Near horizon geometry
    17.5 Replacing T4 with K3

    18 D-branes, gravity and gauge theory
    18.1 The AdS/CFT correspondence
    18.2 The correspondence at finite temperature
    18.3 The correspondence with a chemical potential
    18.4 The holographic principle

    19 The holographic renormalisation group
    19.1 Renormalisation group flows from gravity
    19.2 Flowing on the Coulomb branch
    19.3 An N=1 gauge dual RG flow
    19.4 An N=2 gauge dual RG flow and the enhangon
    19.5 Beyond gravity duals
    20 Taking stock
    References
    Index

    序言

    In view of the exciting developments in our understanding of those partic-ular aspects of fundamental physics that string theory seems to capture,it seems appropriate to collect together some of the key tools and ideaswhich helped move things forward. The developments included a truerevolution, since the physical perspective changed so radically that it un-dermined the long-standing status of strings as the basic fundamentalobjects, and instead the idea has arisen that a string theory descriptionis simply a special (albeit rather novel and beautiful) corner of a largertheory called 'M-theory'. This book is not an attempt at a history of therevolution, as we are (arguably) still in the midst of it, especially since weare in the awkward position of not knowing even one satisfactory intrin-sic definition of M-theory, and have implicit knowledge of it only throughinterconnections of its various limits.
    All revolutions are supposed to have a collection of characters whoplayed a crucial role in it, 'heroes' if you will. Hence, one would be ex-pected to proceed to list here the names of various individuals. WhileI was lucky to be in a position to observe a lot of the activity at first handand collect many wonderful anecdotes about how some things came to be,I will decline to start listing names at this juncture. It is too easy to yieldto the temptation to emphasise a few personalities in a short space (suchas this preface), and the result can sometimes be at the expense of others,a practice which happens all too often elsewhere. This seems to me to beespecially inappropriate in a field where the most striking characteristicof the contributions has been the collective effort of hundreds of thinkersall over the planet, often linked by e-mail and the web, often never havingmet each other in person.

    文摘

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    A closer look at the world..sheetThe careful reader has patiently suspended disbelief for a while now,al-lowing US to race through a somewhat rough presentation of some of thehighlights of the construction of consistent relativistic strings.This en。abled US,by essentially stringing lots of oscillators together,to go quitefar in developing our intuition for how things work,and for key aspectsof the language.Without promising to suddenly become rigourous,it seems a good ideato revisit some of the things we went over quickly,in order to unpacksome more details of the operation of the theory.This will allow US todevelop more tools and language for later use,and to see a bit furtherinto the structure of the theory.
    3.1 Conformal invarianceWe saw in section 2.2.8 that the use ofthe symmetries ofthe action to fix a gauge left over an infinite dimensional group of transformations which we could still perform and remain in that gauge.These are conformal trans-formations,and the world-sheet theory is in fact conformally invariant.It is worth digressing a little and discussing conformal invariance in arbi-trary dimensions first,before specialising to the case of two dimensions.We will find a surprising reason to come back to conformal invariance in higher dimensions much later,so there is a point to this.