march off through the snow against theBoeotians, and returns wounded by avine-stake on which he has impaled him-self, while Dikaiopolis celebrates the*Anthesteria with the priest of Dionysus. This play has been interpreted as aserious plea for peace on the part of thepoet.Ach'ts, in Virgil's Aeneid, the faithfulfriend and lieutenant of Aeneas,frequently referred to as fidus Achates,'faithful Achates. He is in the epic tradi-tion of faithful friends, comparable withPatroclus, friend to Achilles, andPirithous, to Theseus.Acheron, in Greek myth, one of therivers of the Underworld （see HADES）.The name was also that of an actual riverin southern Epirus, which, issuing from adeep and gloomy gorge, passed throughthe lake Acherusia and after receiving thewaters of the tributary Cocytus fell intothe Thesprotian Gulf. In Hellenistic andLatin poetry the name denoted theUnderworld itself.Achill'id （Achillis）, epic poem in hex-ameters by the Roman poet *Statius onthe story of *Achilles, of which only thefirst book and part of the second exist,the work having been cut short by thepoet's death. The poem describes howThetis, anxious that her son Achilles shallnot take part in the Trojan War （fromwhich she knows he will not return）,removes him from the care of the Cen-taur *Chiron to the island of Scyros. Itrelates his adventures there in the dis-guise of a girl, his discovery by Ulysses,and departure for Troy.Achi'lles （AkhiUeus）, in Greek myth,only son of the mortal *Peleus, king ofPhthia in Thessaly, and Thetis, a sea-nymph, daughter of Nereus （see alsoPARIS, JUDGEMENT OF）. In the Trojan WarAchilles was the chief hero on the Greekside; Homer draws his portrait once andfor all in the Iliad, the plot of which turnson Achilles' ungovernable angel Hecame to Troy with a contingent of fiftyships and many followers usually referredto as Myrmidons （for which name seeAEACUS）. When he sulked in his tent andrefused to fight after his quarrel withAgamemnon, as related in the Iliad, theGreeks were driven back to their shipsand almost overwhelmed. Then followedthe intervention and death of his friendPatroclus in the battle at the hands ofthe Trojan hero Hector, and Achilles'terrible grief. After reconciliation withAgamemnon, he slew Hector, taking fur-ther vengeance for Patroclus' death bydragging the body behind his chariot. TheIliad ends with Achilles, purged of angerand grief, allowing Priam, Hector'sfather, to ransom the body. The *Aethiopis tells how Achilleskilled Penthesilea, queen of the Am-azons, who was fighting on the Trojanside. Mourning her for her beauty, hewas mocked by *Thersites and killed himin a rage; subsequently he killed*Memnon. Soon afterwards he was him-self killed, shot in the heel by Paris （or byApollo）; see below. Odysseus saw him inthe Underworld （Odyssey I l）, but it wassaid later that he lived immortal on anisland in the Black Sea. After the fallof Troy his ghost claimed Polyxena,daughter of Priam, as his prize, and shewas sacrificed on his tomb. In these accounts Achilles has apassionate nature and seems more savagethan the other Greeks. His treatment ofHector's body and his sacrifice of Trojanprisoners at Patroclus' funeral are bothstigmatized as evil deeds. When roused toanger he spares no one and has no respectfor a visible god, but he shows greatdevotion to his friend Patroclus. He isaware that his life is fated to he short, hisdeath at Troy having been foretold. The poets of the *Epic Cycle and laterauthors add to the story of Achilles. Itwas said that in infancy he was dipped inthe river Styx by his mother Thetis （oranointed with *ambrosia by day and heldin the fire at night） to make him invulner-able. She was interrupted by Peleus, andin anger abandoned her husband and thechild, who remained vulnerable in theheel by which she had held him; it was inhis heel that Achilles according to epictradition received his death wound froman arrow shot by Paris. He had his educa-tion from the Centaur *Chiron. When theGreek contingents were gathering forTroy, Peleus or Thetis, seeking to savehim from his fated death, hid him on theisland of Seyros at the court of King.